Peripheral Vascular Disease Medication
- Author: Everett Stephens, MD; Chief Editor: Erik D Schraga, MD more...
The goal of pharmacotherapy is to reduce morbidity and to prevent complications.
Anticoagulants reduce thrombin generation and fibrin formation and minimize clot propagation.
Augments activity of antithrombin III and prevents conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Does not actively lyse but is able to inhibit further thrombogenesis. Prevents reaccumulation of clot after spontaneous fibrinolysis.
Thukkani AK, Kinlay S. Endovascular intervention for peripheral artery disease. Circ Res. 2015 Apr 24. 116 (9):1599-613. [Medline].
Suzuki JI, Shimamura M, Suda H, et al. Current therapies and investigational drugs for peripheral arterial disease. Hypertens Res. 2015 Dec 3. [Medline].
Jackson EA, Munir K, Schreiber T, et al. Impact of sex on morbidity and mortality rates after lower extremity interventions for peripheral arterial disease: observations from the Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Cardiovascular Consortium. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Jun 17. 63 (23):2525-30. [Medline].
Dencker D, Pedersen F, Engstrom T, et al. Major femoral vascular access complications after coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures: A Danish register study. Int J Cardiol. 2016 Jan 1. 202:604-8. [Medline].
Hussein AA, Uno K, Wolski K, et al. Peripheral arterial disease and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011 Mar 8. 57(10):1220-5. [Medline].
Nakata S, Yokoi Y, Matsumoto R, et al. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes following ischemic heart disease in patients with and without peripheral vascular disease. Osaka City Med J. 2008 Jun. 54(1):21-30. [Medline].
Chen CC, Hung KC, Hsieh IC, Wen MS. Association between peripheral vascular disease indexes and the numbers of vessels obstructed in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Med Sci. 2012 Jan. 343(1):52-5. [Medline].
Jurado JA, Bashir R, Burket MW. Radiation-induced peripheral artery disease. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2008 Oct 1. 72(4):563-8. [Medline].
Meller SM, Stilp E, Walker CN, Mena-Hurtado C. The link between vasculogenic erectile dysfunction, coronary artery disease, and peripheral artery disease: role of metabolic factors and endovascular therapy. J Invasive Cardiol. 2013 Jun. 25(6):313-9. [Medline].
Craft LL, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, et al. Physical activity during daily life and circulating biomarker levels in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Nov 1. 102(9):1263-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Napoli A, Anzidei M, Zaccagna F, Cavallo Marincola B, Zini C, Brachetti G. Peripheral arterial occlusive disease: diagnostic performance and effect on therapeutic management of 64-section CT angiography. Radiology. 2011 Dec. 261(3):976-86. [Medline].
Stacy MR, Sinusas AJ. Novel applications of radionuclide imaging in peripheral vascular disease. Cardiol Clin. 2016 Feb. 34 (1):167-77. [Medline].
Criqui MH, Ninomiya JK, Wingard DL, Ji M, Fronek A. Progression of peripheral arterial disease predicts cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Nov 18. 52(21):1736-42. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Alonso-Coello P, Bellmunt S, McGorrian C, et al. Antithrombotic therapy in peripheral artery disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012 Feb. 141(2 Suppl):e669S-90S. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Suzuki A, Kanai A. 8% Lidocaine pump spray relieves pain associated with peripheral blood flow disorders. Clin J Pain. 2009 Feb. 25(2):107-10. [Medline].
Aufderheide TP. Peripheral arteriovascular disease. Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 1998. 1826-44.
Feldman AJ. Acute extremity ischemia and thrombophlebitis. Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 1996. 389-94.
Hauser CJ, Klein SR, Mehringer CM, Appel P, Shoemaker WC. Superiority of transcutaneous oximetry in noninvasive vascular diagnosis in patients with diabetes. Arch Surg. 1984 Jun. 119(6):690-4. [Medline].
Hedin U, Wahlberg E. Gene therapy and vascular disease: potential applications in vascular surgery. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1997 Feb. 13(2):101-11. [Medline].
Henein MY, Anagnostopoulos C, Das SK, O'Sullivan C, Underwood SR, Gibson DG. Left ventricular long axis disturbances as predictors for thallium perfusion defects in patients with known peripheral vascular disease. Heart. 1998 Mar. 79(3):295-300. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Howell JM. Acquired diseases of the arteries and veins. Emergency Medicine. 1998. 203-6.
Levien DH. Vascular surgery. Introduction to Surgery. 2nd ed. 1993. 208-14.
Schwartz GR. Nontraumatic organ system emergencies. Principles and Practice of Emergency Medicine. 1992. 1382-90.
Semashko DC. Vascular emergencies. Mt Sinai J Med. 1997 Sep-Oct. 64(4-5):316-22. [Medline].
Yousuf AM, Pai NB. Noninvasive evaluation of vascular diseases. Hosp Physician. 1991 Apr. 48-52.