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Body Fluid Exposures

  • Author: Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 22, 2015
 

Background

Blood and any body fluid visibly contaminated with blood should be considered capable of transmitting hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semen and vaginal secretions should also be considered potentially able to transmit these viruses. Similarly, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, and peritoneal and pericardial fluids carry a significant risk of transmitting these viruses.

In contrast, unless blood is visibly present, saliva, sputum, sweat, tears, feces, nasal secretions, urine, and vomitus carry a very low risk of transmission of HCV and HIV. It should be noted that saliva can also carry HBV.[1] (See Pathophysiology.)

Occupational transmission of blood-borne infections may also occur through parenteral, mucous membrane, and non-intact skin exposure. The greatest risk for transdermal transmission is via a skin penetration injury that is fairly deep and sustained with a sharp hollow-bore needle that has visible blood on it that had recently been removed from a blood vessel of a patient with a high viral load.[2] Although many infectious agents may be transmitted by such contact, the most consequential include HBV, HCV, and HIV. (See Pathophysiology and Prognosis.)

In addition, skin and soft-tissue infection at the site of the inoculation, through introduction of staphylococcal species, is an issue of concern and must not be neglected. Tetanus prophylaxis is also an important issue of concern. Another important issue is the fact that many medical institutions adopt clinical pathways, algorithms, and plans for management of their own health care personnel but are woefully lacking when faced with the outside individual at significant risk for these diseases from needlesticks, mucous membrane splashes, or sexual encounters. (See Treatment and Medication.)

Health care personnel include employees, volunteers, attending clinicians, students, contractors, and any public safety workers whose activities involve contact with patients and their environment such that exposure to blood or other body fluids can occur. Nurses, trainees, and students are at especially high risk for significant morbidity from these exposures.[3, 4, 5]

Non–health care personnel may be exposed by way of social interaction, sexual encounters (including sexual assault), trauma scenarios, intentional inoculations consistent with contemporary terrorist activity, or drug abuse. A flow chart for the management of body fluid exposure is shown below.

Flowsheet for management of blood/body fluid expos Flowsheet for management of blood/body fluid exposures.

Infection risk

Body fluid exposures carry a risk of transmitting HIV, HBV, and HCV. The risk of developing HIV after a needlestick injury involving an HIV-infected patient is around 0.3%. Factors that increase the odds of HIV transmission after percutaneous exposure include a deep injury, the presence of visible blood on the instrument causing the exposure, injury via a needle that was placed in a vein or artery of the source patient, and terminal illness in the source patient.[6, 7] Wearing gloves may reduce (>50%) the volume of blood introduced through an injury. (See Prognosis.)

Note that the risk of HIV transmission in health care workers from exposure of the mucosa to HIV-infected fluids was extremely low (0.09%) and that no cases of HIV conversion after exposure of intact skin to HIV-contaminated fluids or from bites (unless visible blood was present) were reported.[8]

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Pathophysiology

When intact, the integumentary system serves as an effective physical barrier to the entry of infectious elements into the body. However, a special situation exists in terms of mucous membranes. Across these membranes lies a layer of mucus secreted by specialized columnar cells that are closely associated with each other through gap junctions. These junctions are little more than specialized cell surface projections that allow intercellular communication.

The presence of a moist mucous layer tends to prolong the viability of fragile viruses, such as HIV and HBV, which cannot survive long in drier environments. However, HBV has been found to be capable of surviving on countertops for 7 days and remain capable of causing infection,[9] while HCV has been shown to be able to survive on environmental surfaces for a minimum of 16 hours, but not for as long as 4 days.[10]

Higher vascularity coupled with a relatively permeable cellular layer gives rise to a presumed heightened risk of transmission of HBV, HCV, or HIV across mucous membranes and into the bloodstream.

After initial exposure, animal models have shown that HIV replicates within dendritic cells of the skin and mucosa within the first 48 hours before spreading through lymphatic vessels and becoming a systemic infection. This interval from initial introduction of the virus to systemic spread provides an opportunity to inhibit the replication of the virus using PEP.[11]

Fortunately, viral transmission is rare in cases of occupational HIV exposures. Intact keratinized skin does not possess the mucous membrane characteristics that encourage the transmission of HIV, and it is virtually impermeable unless disrupted.

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Etiology

Most exposures are caused by a departure from universal precautions on some level, whether they are the result of recapping or of failure to use personal protective equipment or are due to a sharp unintentionally left in an inappropriate place or placed in the wrong container for disposal. (See Presentation.)

When dealing with blood and body fluid exposures, document whether the exposure represents a departure from universal precautions or Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards or whether it represents a true accident (eg, projectile vomiting, precipitous labor with spontaneous rupture of membranes). This information is vital to the institutional safety committee, whose function is to monitor the safety of the environment for the entire facility and make recommendations for upgrades and policy changes.

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Epidemiology

In the United States, sharps injuries occur at a rate of 1.8 per year per physician and 0.98 per year per nurse while working on the same medical ward. Statistically, however, twice as many nurses as doctors have been reported with occupationally acquired HIV infection. Whether this is a function of the significance of the exposure (ie, severity of the stick) or the route of exposure remains to be studied.

In a retrospective study of first responders presenting to an ED for body fluid or blood exposure, the incidence was 23.29 ED visits per 100,000 ambulance runs.[12]

Body fluid exposures appear to be a significant problem in developing countries, but no reliable statistics are available.

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Prognosis

Prognosis is associated with risk of infection and its sequelae. This is difficult to specify in any given patient. However, since the risk of HIV transmission is less than 1%, the prognosis of any given patient exposed to HIV may be listed as good but may remain so only with vigilant follow-up and consistent use of prophylaxis against infection.

Patients who develop hepatitis or HIV infection face significant morbidity and mortality. However, meaningful treatments now exist for HIV, HBV, and HCV infections.

Morbidity and mortality

Health care workers who have a significant exposure to HBV (ie, inoculation with an open-bore needle from a source known to have active HBV disease) but have not previously received HBV vaccine and do not receive PEP have a 6%-30% risk of becoming infected, depending on the presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg).

The risk of HCV transmission from a known HCV-positive source by a sharps injury is 0%-7%. Approximately 80% of those infected with HCV will develop active liver disease, and 10%-20% will develop cirrhosis; 1%-5% of cirrhosis cases will lead to liver cancer over a period of years.[13]

As noted above, the rate of HIV transmission from a known infected individual via a sharps injury is 0.3%, whereas that for exposure to mucous membrane is 0.09%.[14] The rate is higher if the injury was sustained by a hollow-bore needle, if the injury was deeply penetrating, or if blood was injected during the injury. Risk to the injured health care worker is greater if the source patient had a high HIV viral load and/or a lower CD4 count.

Complications

The main complication of body fluid exposure is acquisition of hepatitis and HIV infection. Acquiring a significant bacterial skin infection from a needlestick is also possible. The risk of acquiring tetanus is extremely low.

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Patient Education

Education regarding universal precautions and safety protocols to employees prior to any body fluid exposure may prevent exposures. Once the patient has been exposed, the patient must be educated regarding the risks, in addition to the risks versus benefits of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).

If the patient opts for HIV PEP, the importance of adherence for 28 days must be emphasized. Also, the patient should understand to return to the emergency department (ED) immediately for any complications of the body fluid exposure or the PEP regimen. The importance of outpatient follow-up should be stressed to the patient.

For additional patient education information, see the Healthy Living Center and the Sexual Health Center, as well as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV/AIDS.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine in Clinical Pediatrics, Associate Professor of Clinical Healthcare Policy and Research, Weill Medical College of Cornell University; Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center

Muhammad Waseem, MD, MS is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Society for Simulation in Healthcare, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Joel R Gernsheimer, MD, FACEP Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Attending Physician and Director of Geriatric Emergency Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center

Joel R Gernsheimer, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of South Carolina School of Medicine; Attending Physician, Clinical Instructor, Compliance Officer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Palmetto Richland Hospital

Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, South Carolina Medical Association, Columbia Medical Society, South Carolina College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Chief Editor for Medscape.

Acknowledgements

Samuel M Keim, MD Associate Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine

Samuel M Keim, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Darrell G Looney, MD, FAAEM Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Long Island College Hospital

Darrell G Looney, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, and National Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Nathalie Mathieu, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Peter B Richman, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital

Peter B Richman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, and Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Barry J Sheridan, DO Chief, Department of Emergency Medical Services, Brooke Army Medical Center

Barry J Sheridan, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Richard Dee Shih, MD Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; Program Director, Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital; Attending Physician, New Jersey Poison Center, Newark Beth Israel Medical Center

Richard Dee Shih, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Medical Toxicology, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Flowsheet for management of blood/body fluid exposures.
 
 
 
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