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Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Juliet D Caldwell, MD; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 01, 2015
 

History

The clinical course of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) advances through several sequential stages.

Following exposure, an incubation period of about 3 weeks ensues. The aerosolized virus enters the lung, is taken up by local phagocytes, and is transported to local lymph nodes where it prepares to disseminate. The prodrome/febrile phase lasts 3-10 days and is marked by the onset of fever, chills, and myalgias, often severe, and is the likely clinical correlate to viral dissemination. It is nearly impossible to distinguish HCPS from any other nonspecific viral syndrome during this period. Disease severity progresses quickly, and patients often develop nausea, vomiting, weakness, and sometimes diarrhea and headache. Andes virus HCPS of South America differs slightly, presenting with facial flushing, fine petechiae, and conjunctivitis. Though rhinorrhea, pharyngitis, otalgia, and coryza are notably absent in most Hantavirus infections, a dry cough is common and often heralds sudden deterioration and progression to the cardiopulmonary phase of disease.[30]

The cardiopulmonary phase lasts anywhere from 2-7 days and presents with sudden respiratory distress and, often, cardiovascular collapse within hours of arrival to the hospital. This phase of the illness correlates with massive capillary leakage into the pulmonary vascular bed. Immune response always precedes the abrupt deterioration into the cardiovascular phase of disease supporting the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis.[8] Clinical deterioration is precipitous and results in pulmonary edema, bronchorrhea, shock, and sometimes coagulopathy (Andes virus) and preterminal arrhythmias. Mean time from onset of first symptom to cardiopulmonary failure is 5 days. See the image below.

Clinical progression of hantavirus cardiopulmonary Clinical progression of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.

Among survivors, recovery is nearly as rapid as decline and is often accompanied by a period of diuresis. During the convalescent period, the patient typically recovers with little or no residual deficits. Several months of fatigue and decreased exercise tolerance are often the only sequelae.

Early diagnosis is difficult because the common presenting symptoms of HCPS overlap with those of other, less ominous, viral illnesses. Risk factors for rodent exposure must be sought and are often the only gateway to an early diagnosis.

Consider diagnosis of HCPS in patients with the following:

  • Fever
  • Severe myalgias (often in the back and legs)
  • Exposure to mice or mouse droppings

Other symptoms may include the following:

  • Malaise
  • GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
  • Headache
  • Cough

Risk factors to seek in the history include the following:

  • Peridomestic rodent infestation
  • Entering or disturbing seasonally closed or infrequently opened buildings
  • Occupational exposure to rodents

Risk also varies with rodent abundance and distribution, which, in turn, depends on several factors, including the following:

  • Geographic region (highest incidence in the Southwest United States)
  • Seasonality (increased incidence in spring and summer)
  • Weather patterns (Outbreaks may follow El Nino conditions of a temperate wet winter.)

The most common prodromal symptoms are the following:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Myalgias (often in the back and legs)

Other common prodromal symptoms include the following:

  • Nausea/vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Cough (usually nonproductive)
  • Malaise
  • Dizziness
  • Dyspnea (usually not observed at presentation but often heralds the cardiopulmonary phase of HCPS)

Consider another diagnosis with the following symptoms:

  • Sore throat
  • Rhinorrhea
  • Conjunctivitis/coryza (except Andes virus)
  • Rash (except Andes virus where petechiae are common)
  • Otalgia
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Physical

Physical findings vary substantially with the stage of disease at presentation.

The most frequent initial physical findings in Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are as follows:

  • Tachypnea
  • Fever
  • Tachycardia

Crackles or decreased breath sounds are noted in most patients on lung examination.

Abdominal tenderness is present in about 10% of patients and may be severe. One patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy before HCPS was recognized.

Petechiae are not observed despite thrombocytopenia (except Andes virus).

Hallmarks of the cardiopulmonary phase of HCPS include the following:

  • Hypotension
  • Respiratory distress with bilateral alveolar infiltrates on radiograph
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Causes

In the United States, Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is primarily caused by the Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and is transmitted via inhalation of aerosolized virus from dried rodent excreta (see Background and Pathophysiology).

The vector of SNV is the deer mouse, P maniculatus (see image below). SNV causes no obvious harm to mice, and they therefore never develop immunity. Infected rodents thereby become chronic, persistent viral shedders.


Peromyscus maniculatus - The deer mouse. Peromyscus maniculatus - The deer mouse.

The incidence of HCPS closely parallels the distribution and number of infected deer mice in a geographic area.[8] Deer mouse populations are influenced by specific environmental conditions.

The El Nino conditions present during the 1993 Navajo outbreak increased the number of deer mice seen that year. The wet and mild conditions encouraged an unusually high population of pinons, a favorite source of food for mice. This, in turn, allowed for a 10-fold increase in the number of deer mice found that year in the Four Corners region of the United States.

Because of horizontal viral transmission via intra-rodent aggressive behaviors such as biting, high rodent density also increases the percentage of deer mice infected.[8] Thirty percent of deer mice in the Four Corners region tested positive for SNV in the 1993 outbreak.

All agree that some type of rodent exposure, whether occupational or sporadic, is the greatest risk factor for contracting Hantavirus. Some controversy exists as to whether occupational exposure on farms or in laboratories is as great a risk factor as sporadically entering rarely opened or seasonally closed rodent-infested buildings.[10, 31, 11]

Occupations at greatest risk for exposure are as follows:

  • Grain farmers
  • Agricultural workers
  • Feedlot employees
  • Field biologists
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Juliet D Caldwell, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College; Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, Weill-Cornell Medical Center; Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Long Island College Hospital

Juliet D Caldwell, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Barry J Sheridan, DO Chief Warrior in Transition Services, Brooke Army Medical Center

Barry J Sheridan, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of South Carolina School of Medicine; Attending Physician, Clinical Instructor, Compliance Officer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Palmetto Richland Hospital

Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, South Carolina Medical Association, Columbia Medical Society, South Carolina College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Chief Editor for Medscape.

Acknowledgements

Scott Cameron, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Regions Hospital

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Michelle Ervin, MD Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Howard University Hospital

Michelle Ervin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, National Medical Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Maureen Gang, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mana Lumumba Kasongo, MD, MS Consulting Staff, Southwest Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) precautions during the 1993 outbreak.
Peromyscus maniculatus - The deer mouse.
Geographic distribution and viral cause of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases by state of exposure.
Geographic distribution of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and Peromyscus maniculatus.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases by outcome.
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) immunoblast.
Chest radiographic progression of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS).
Clinical progression of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.
 
 
 
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