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Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Thomas E Green, DO, MPH, FACOEP, FACEP; Chief Editor: Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jun 15, 2016
 

History

A broad range of signs and symptoms are seen in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). A high index of suspicion must be maintained when caring for patients with ascites, particularly those with acute clinical deterioration. Completely asymptomatic cases have been reported in as many as 30% of patients.

Fever and chills occur in as many as 80% of patients. Abdominal pain or discomfort is found in as many as 70% of patients.

Other signs and symptoms may include the following:

  • Worsening or unexplained encephalopathy
  • Diarrhea
  • Ascites that does not improve following administration of diuretic medication
  • Worsening or new-onset renal failure
  • Ileus
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Physical Examination

Abdominal tenderness is found in more than 50% of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Findings can range from mild tenderness to overt rebound and guarding. In some cases, the abdominal examination findings mimic an acute intra-abdominal catastrophe requiring emergency surgical evaluation. Physical examination may also disclose hypotension (5-14% of patients) or signs of hepatic failure such as jaundice and angiomata.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Thomas E Green, DO, MPH, FACOEP, FACEP Associate Dean for Clinical Affairs, Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine; Attending Physician, Emergency Department, Emergency Practice Associates; Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Midwestern University, Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine

Thomas E Green, DO, MPH, FACOEP, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Osteopathic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Steven M Bandy, MD, FACEP Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Johnston Memorial Hospital; Adjunct Clinical Professor of Emergency Medicine, Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Steven M Bandy, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Surgery, University of South Carolina School of Medicine; Attending Physician, Clinical Instructor, Compliance Officer, Department of Emergency Medicine, Palmetto Richland Hospital

Jeter (Jay) Pritchard Taylor, III, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, South Carolina Medical Association, Columbia Medical Society, South Carolina College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Chief Editor for Medscape.

References
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  16. Pande C, Kumar A, Sarin SK. Addition of probiotics to norfloxacin does not improve efficacy in the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized-controlled trial. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Jul. 24(7):831-9. [Medline].

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