Benign Positional Vertigo in Emergency Medicine Workup
- Author: Andrew K Chang, MD; Chief Editor: Robert E O'Connor, MD, MPH more...
No pathognomonic laboratory test for benign positional vertigo (BPV) exists. Laboratory tests may be performed to rule out other pathology.
Currently, no imaging study can demonstrate the presence of otoliths.
Head CT scanning or MRI is indicated if the diagnosis is in doubt.
Although most patients with benign positional vertigo (BPV) have posterior semicircular canal involvement, some patients have horizontal canal involvement. This canal should be suspected if the patient has bilateral symptoms during the Hallpike test. Use the Roll test to formally diagnose horizontal canal BPV, and use the bar-b-que treatment to treat horizontal canal BPV.
Have the patient lie in the supine position on the gurney. Unlike the Hallpike test, the head does not need to hang over the edge of the gurney.
Turn the patient's head 90° to one side. The patient should experience a reproduction of symptoms and the presence of horizontal nystagmus. The fast phase should beat toward the earth (geotropic).
Now, turn the patient's head 180° (or 90° to the opposite side). The patient should again experience a reproduction of symptoms and the presence of horizontal nystagmus. The fast phase again beats toward the earth (note that it has changed direction). This is known as direction-changing nystagmus (nystagmus that changes direction based on turning the head) and is different from gaze-evoked nystagmus (which is nystagmus that changes direction depending on where the patient is looking, as in Dilantin toxicity).
Note that both sides will have nystagmus and a reproduction of symptoms, but one side will be much more symptomatic (and demonstrate stronger nystagmus) than the other side. This is considered the involved side.
A positive Roll test should be treated with the bar-b-que treatment (see Treatment and the video below).
Head-thrust test (head-impulse test)
The head-thrust test is used to diagnose vestibular neuritis and labyrinthitis.
In this test, the patient is told to look at the examiner's nose. The examiner places both his or her hands on the patient's head and rapidly turns it approximately 10-15° to one side. If the vestibular apparatus is functioning properly, the patient will be able to maintain his or her focus on the examiner's nose. If the vestibular apparatus is not working properly, the patient's eyes will deviate to the side and then quickly jerk back to view the examiner's nose. This jerking eye movement is called a saccade and indicates a positive head-thrust test. As a general rule, a positive head-thrust test rules in a peripheral (and hence benign) cause of vertigo. There are reported cases, however, of positive head-thrust tests in central causes of vertigo.
The Hallpike test, along with the patient's history, confirms the diagnosis of BPV. See Physical for details of this procedure.
The modified Epley maneuver is used to treat posterior canal BPV (see Treatment as well as the video below for a demonstration).
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