Pediatric Dehydration Medication
- Author: Alex Koyfman, MD; Chief Editor: Timothy E Corden, MD more...
Use a single dose of oral ondansetron in combination with oral rehydration for patients with dehydration, nausea, and vomiting.[11, 12, 13] However, the use of an antiemetic should not shift the focus away from adequate fluid resuscitation.
As dopamine antagonists, these agents are effective in treating nausea and vomiting. They also may act as prokinetics to increase gastric motility and enhance absorption.
Odansetron is a selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist that blocks serotonin both peripherally and centrally. It prevents nausea and vomiting.
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|Symptom||Degree of Dehydration|
|Mild (< 3% body weight lost)||Moderate (3-9% body weight lost)||Severe (>9% body weight lost)|
|Mental status||Normal, alert||Restless or fatigued, irritable||Apathetic, lethargic, unconscious|
|Heart rate||Normal||Normal to increased||Tachycardia or bradycardia|
|Quality of pulse||Normal||Normal to decreased||Weak, thready, impalpable|
|Breathing||Normal||Normal to increased||Tachypnea and hyperpnea|
|Eyes||Normal||Slightly sunken||Deeply sunken|
|Fontanelles||Normal||Slightly sunken||Deeply sunken|
|Tears||Normal||Normal to decreased||Absent|
|Skin turgor||Instant recoil||Recoil < 2 seconds||Recoil >2 seconds|
|Capillary refill||< 2 seconds||Prolonged||Minimal|
|Adapted from King CK, Glass R, Bresee JS, et al. Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. MMWR Recomm Rep. Nov 21 2003;52(RR-16):1-16.|