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Pediatric Gastroenteritis in Emergency Medicine Treatment & Management

  • Author: Adam Levine, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Kirsten A Bechtel, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jul 23, 2015
 

Prehospital Care

Children with acute gastroenteritis rarely require intravenous access. In those presenting with circulatory collapse due to severe dehydration or sepsis, intravenous access should be obtained and followed by an immediate 20 mL/kg bolus of normal saline.

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Emergency Department Care

The American Academy of Pediatrics, the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition (ESPGAN), and the World Health Organization all recommend oral rehydration solution (ORS) as the treatment of choice for children with mild-to-moderate gastroenteritis in both developed and developing countries, based on the results of dozens of randomized, controlled trials and several large meta-analyses.[10, 15, 11, 12]

One large meta-analysis of 16 trials including 1545 children with mild-to-moderate dehydration found that, compared with intravenous rehydration, children treated with ORS had a significant reduction in length of hospital stay and fewer adverse events, including seizures and death.[27] The overall rate of ORS failure (percentage of children eventually requiring intravenous hydration) in studies comparing ORS to intravenous hydration was about 4%.[28]

Initial care in the emergency department should focus on correction of dehydration. The type and amount of fluid given should reflect the degree of dehydration in the child.

Minimal or no dehydration

No immediate treatment is required. If the child is breastfed, the mother should be encouraged to breastfeed more frequently than usual and for longer at each feed. If the child is not exclusively breastfed, then oral maintenance fluids (including clean water, soup, rice water, yogurt drink, or other culturally appropriate fluid) should be given at a rate of approximately 500 mL/day for children younger than 2 years, 1000 mL/day for children aged 2-10 years, and 2000 mL/day for children older than 10 years.

In addition, ongoing fluid losses should be replaced with 10 mL/kg body weight of additional ORS for each loose stool and 2 mL/kg body weight of additional ORS for each episode of emesis (both for breastfed and nonbreastfed children).

Mild-to-moderate dehydration

Children should be given 50-100 mL/kg of ORS over a 2- to 4-hour period to replace their estimated fluid deficit, with additional ORS given to replace ongoing losses (10 mL/kg body weight for each stool and 2 mL/kg body weight for each episode of emesis). After the initial rehydration phase, patients may be transitioned to maintenance fluids as described above.

ORS should be given slowly by the caregiver or parent using a teaspoon, syringe, or medicine dropper at a rate of 5 mL every 1-2 minutes. If tolerated by the patient, the rate of ORS delivery can be increased slowly over time.

For patients who do not tolerate ORS by mouth, nasogastric (NG) feeding is a safe and effective alternative. Multiple clinical trials have found NG rehydration to be as efficacious as intravenous rehydration, but more cost-effective and with fewer adverse events.[29, 27]

Patients should be reassessed frequently by the clinician to ensure adequacy of oral intake and resolution of the various signs and symptoms of dehydration.

Severe dehydration

Severe dehydration constitutes a medical emergency requiring immediate resuscitation with intravenous fluids. Intravenous access should be obtained, and patients should be administered a bolus of 20-30 mL/kg lactated Ringer's (LR) or normal saline (NS). If pulse, perfusion, and/or mental status do not improve, a second bolus should be administered. After this, the patient should be given an infusion of 70 mL/kg LR or NS over 5 hours (children < 12 months) or 2.5 hours (older children). If no peripheral veins are available, an intraosseous line should be placed. Serum electrolytes, bicarbonate, urea/creatinine, and glucose levels should be sent.

Once resuscitation is complete and mental status returns to normal, rehydration should continue with ORS as described above, as it has been shown to decrease the rate of hyponatremia and hypernatremia when compared with intravenous rehydration.

Type of ORS

A large CochraneDatabase of Systematic Reviews meta-analysis confirmed several earlier studies showing that reduced osmolarity ORS (osmolarity < 250 mmol/L) is associated with fewer treatment failures, lower stool output, and less frequent vomiting compared with standard osmolarity ORS for patients with noncholera gastroenteritis.[30] However, patients with cholera appear to have higher rates of hyponatremia with reduced osmolarity ORS compared with standard osmolarity ORS, without any of the added benefits seen in patients with noncholera gastroenteritis.[31]

Multiple preparations of reduced osmolarity ORS are available in the United States, including Pedialyte, Infalyte, and Naturalyte. Available formulations in Europe include Dioralyte and Diocalm Junior. In developing countries, clinicians can use WHO ORS sachets or a homemade solution of 3 g (1 tsp) salt and 18 g (6 tsp) sugar added to 1 liter of clean water.

New research suggests that polymer-based ORS, made from complex carbohydrates such as rice, wheat, or maize, may reduce stool output and length of diarrhea compared with glucose-based ORS.[32, 33] With these solutions, carbohydrates are slowly digested in the small intestine, releasing glucose to facilitate sodium uptake without adding a significant osmotic load to bowel contents. Although currently not widely available in the United States, polymer-based ORS may become the preferred solution for oral rehydration of children with diarrhea in the future.

Feeding and nutrition

In general, children with gastroenteritis should be returned to a normal diet as rapidly as possible. Early feeding reduces illness duration and improves nutritional outcome.

Breastfed infants should continue breastfeeding throughout the rehydration and maintenance phases of acute gastroenteritis. Formula fed infants should restart feeding at full strength as soon as the rehydration phase is complete (ideally in 2-4 h). Weaned children should restart their normal fluids and solids as soon as the rehydration phase is complete. Fatty foods and foods high in simple sugars should be avoided.

For most infants, clinical trials have found no benefit of lactose-free formulas over lactose-containing formulas. Similarly, highly specific diets, such as the BRAT (bananas, rice, applesauce, and toast) diet, have not been shown to improve outcomes and may provide suboptimal nutrition for the patient.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Adam Levine, MD, MPH Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, Brown University Alpert School of Medicine

Adam Levine, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, American Public Health Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Karen A Santucci, MD, MD 

Karen A Santucci, MD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Academic Pediatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, Sigma Xi, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mercy St Vincent Medical Center; Chairman, Pediatric Institutional Review Board, Mercy St Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, Ohio

Wayne Wolfram, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Kirsten A Bechtel, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine; Co-Director, Injury Free Coalition for Kids, Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital

Kirsten A Bechtel, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

James Li, MD Former Assistant Professor, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Board of Directors, Remote Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author, David W Marby, MD †, to the development and writing of this article.

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Child with sunken eyes.
Child with slow skin pinch (reduced skin turgor).
Child with absent tears.
Child with lethargy/poor general appearance.
Child with hyperpnea (deep, acidotic breathing)
Table 1. Assessment of Dehydration*
Symptom or Sign No or Minimal Dehydration Mild to Moderate Dehydration Severe Dehydration
Mental status Alert Restless, irritable Lethargic, unconscious
Thirst Drinks normally Drinks eagerly Drinks poorly
Heart rate Normal Normal to increased Tachycardia
Quality of pulses Normal Normal to decreased Weak or unpalpable
Breathing Normal Normal or fast Deep
Eyes Normal Slightly sunken Deeply sunken
Tears Present Decreased Absent
Mouth and tongue Moist Dry Parched
Skin fold Instant recoil Recoil < 2 seconds Recoil >2 seconds
Capillary refill Normal Prolonged Prolonged or minimal
Extremities Warm Cool Cold, mottled, cyanotic
Urine output Normal Decreased Minimal
*Adapted from King et al. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;52(RR-16):1-16.[15]
Table 2. Assessment of Dehydration According to the World Health Organization*
Severe Dehydration Two of the following signs:



-Lethargic or unconscious



-Sunken eyes



-Not able to drink or drinking poorly



-Skin pinch goes back very slowly



Some Dehydration Two of the following signs:



-Restless, irritable



-Sunken eyes



-Thirsty, drinks eagerly



-Skin pinch goes back slowly



No Dehydration Not enough of the above signs to classify as some or severe dehydration
*Adapted from World Health Organization.[10]
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