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Mandible Dislocation Medication

  • Author: Meher Chaudhry, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH  more...
 
Updated: Apr 08, 2016
 

Medication Summary

Sedation and analgesia are indicated if reduction is attempted. The componants of procedural sedation may be dictated by hospital setting. The medications traditionally used for this purpose are diazepam and morphine. Other conscious sedation protocols can be used providing the patient maintains an adequate gag reflex. Certain medications that can cause masseter spasm (eg, methohexital, chlordiazepoxide, phenothiazines) should be avoided because this complication would prevent relocation of the mandible.

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Analgesics

Class Summary

Pain control is essential to quality patient care. It ensures patient comfort, promotes pulmonary toilet, and aids physical therapy regimens. Many analgesics have sedating properties that benefit patients with injuries.

Morphine (Astramorph, Duramorph)

 

DOC for analgesia due to reliable and predictable effects, safety profile, and ease of reversibility with naloxone.

Various IV doses are used; commonly titrated until desired effect obtained.

Fentanyl citrate (Duragesic, Sublimaze)

 

Potent narcotic analgesic with much shorter half-life than morphine sulfate. With short duration (30-60 min) and easy titration, an excellent choice for pain management and sedation. Easily and quickly reversed by naloxone.

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Anxiolytics

Class Summary

Benzodiazepines have both anxiolytic and muscle relaxation properties.  Patients with painful injuries usually experience significant anxiety. Anxiolytics allow the clinician to administer a smaller analgesic dose to achieve the same effect.

Diazepam (Valium)

 

Individualize dosage and increase cautiously to avoid adverse effects.

Lorazepam (Ativan)

 

Sedative hypnotic in benzodiazepine class that has short onset of effect and relatively long half-life. By increasing action of GABA, a major inhibitory neurotransmitter, may depress all levels of CNS, including limbic and reticular formation. Excellent medication for patients requiring sedation for >24h. Monitor BP after administering dose and adjust as necessary.

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Anesthetics

Class Summary

These agents are used to reduce pain and can be used for nerve blocks in mandible reductions.

Lidocaine (Lidocaine CV, Lidopen)

 

Lidocaine injections can be used for nerve blocks in mandible reductions.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Meher Chaudhry, MD Emergency Medicine, Team Health, University of Tennessee Medical Center

Meher Chaudhry, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Adam J Rosh, MD Assistant Professor, Program Director, Emergency Medicine Residency, Department of Emergency Medicine, Detroit Receiving Hospital, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Adam J Rosh, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Rick Kulkarni, MD Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cambridge Health Alliance, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Rick Kulkarni, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, American Medical Informatics Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Received salary from WebMD for employment.

Chief Editor

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH Chief of Emergency Medicine, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System; Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission

James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, California Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Christian D McClung, MD, MPhil(Cantab) Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, Los Angeles County/University of California Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Edward J Newton, MD, FACEP, FRCPC Professor of Clinical Emergency Medicine, Chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Tom Scaletta, MD President, Smart-ER (http://smart-er.net); Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Edward Hospital; Past-President, American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Tom Scaletta, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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The temporomandibular joint.
Classic reduction technique. The physician places gloved thumbs on the patient's inferior molars bilaterally, as far back as possible. The fingers of the physician are curved beneath the angle and body of the mandible.
Recumbent approach. The patient is placed recumbent, and the physician stands behind the head of the patient. The physician places his or her thumbs on the inferior molars and applies downward and backward pressure until the jaw pops back into place.
Wrist pivot method. The patient is placed in a sitting position, and the physician stands facing the patient. The physician grasps the mandible at the apex of the mentum with both thumbs. The fingers are placed on the inferior molars.
Ipsilateral approach - extraoral route. The patient is placed in a sitting position, and the physician stands behind the patient. The physician stabilizes the patient's head with his or her nondominant hand and uses the dominant hand to apply downward pressure on the displaced condyle that is palpated just inferior to the zygomatic arch.
 
 
 
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