Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Femur Fracture Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: James E Keany, MD, FACEP; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH  more...
Updated: Sep 28, 2015
Contributor Information and Disclosures

James E Keany, MD, FACEP Associate Medical Director, Emergency Services, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Orange County at Mission

James E Keany, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, California Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Dekker McKeever, DPM Chief Podiatric Surgery Resident Physician, Trauma and Reconstruction Specialist, Mission Hospital Regional Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH Chief of Emergency Medicine, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System; Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Francis Counselman, MD, FACEP Chair, Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Eastern Virginia Medical School

Francis Counselman, MD, FACEP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Emergency Physicians, Norfolk Academy of Medicine, Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Tom Scaletta, MD President, Smart-ER (; Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Edward Hospital; Past-President, American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Tom Scaletta, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Hogan TM. Hip and femur. Hart RG, Rittenberry TJ, Uehara DT, eds. Handbook of Orthopaedic Emergencies. Publishers: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1999. 307-8.

  2. Braten M, Helland P, Myhre HO, Molster A, Terjesen T. 11 femoral fractures with vascular injury: good outcome with early vascular repair and internal fixation. Acta Orthop Scand. 1996 Apr. 67(2):161-4. [Medline].

  3. DiChristina DG, Riemer BL, Butterfield SL, Burke CJ 3rd, Herron MK, Phillips DJ. Femur fractures with femoral or popliteal artery injuries in blunt trauma. J Orthop Trauma. 1994 Dec. 8(6):494-503. [Medline].

  4. Salminen S, Pihlajamaki H, Avikainen V, Kyro A, Bostman O. Specific features associated with femoral shaft fractures caused by low-energy trauma. J Trauma. 1997 Jul. 43(1):117-22. [Medline].

  5. Alho A. Concurrent ipsilateral fractures of the hip and shaft of the femur. A systematic review of 722 cases. Ann Chir Gynaecol. 1997. 86(4):326-36. [Medline].

  6. Khan AA, Leslie WD, Lentle B, Iles S, Kaiser SM, Frame H, et al. Atypical Femoral Fractures: A Teaching Perspective. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2015 May. 66 (2):102-7. [Medline].

  7. Gedmintas L, Solomon DH, Kim SC. Bisphosphonates and risk of subtrochanteric, femoral shaft, and atypical femur fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Aug. 28 (8):1729-37. [Medline].

  8. Chesnut CH 4th, Chesnut CH 3rd. Can PET-CT imaging and radiokinetic analyses provide useful clinical information on atypical femoral shaft fracture in osteoporotic patients?. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2012 Mar. 10 (1):42-7. [Medline].

  9. Shane E, Burr D, Abrahamsen B, et al. Atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femoral fractures: second report of a task force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jan. 29 (1):1-23. [Medline].

  10. Starr AJ, Hunt JL, Reinert CM. Treatment of femur fracture with associated vascular injury. J Trauma. 1996 Jan. 40(1):17-21. [Medline].

  11. Baron JA, Karagas M, Barrett J, Kniffin W, Malenka D, Mayor M, et al. Basic epidemiology of fractures of the upper and lower limb among Americans over 65 years of age. Epidemiology. 1996 Nov. 7(6):612-8. [Medline].

  12. Harrington KD. Orthopaedic management of extremity and pelvic lesions. Clin Orthop. 1995 Mar. (312):136-47. [Medline].

  13. Mohr VD, Eickhoff U, Haaker R, Klammer HL. External fixation of open femoral shaft fractures. J Trauma. 1995 Apr. 38(4):648-52. [Medline].

  14. Macnicol MF. Fracture of the femur in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1997 Nov. 79(6):891-2. [Medline].

  15. Kanel JS. Treatment of fractures of the femur in children and adolescents. West J Med. 1995 Dec. 163(6):570. [Medline].

  16. Illgen R 2nd, Rodgers WB, Hresko MT, Waters PM, Zurakowski D, Kasser JR. Femur fractures in children: treatment with early sitting spica casting. J Pediatr Orthop. 1998 Jul-Aug. 18(4):481-7. [Medline].

  17. Blasier RD, Aronson J, Tursky EA. External fixation of pediatric femur fractures. J Pediatr Orthop. 1997 May-Jun. 17(3):342-6. [Medline].

  18. Clinkscales CM, Peterson HA. Isolated closed diaphyseal fractures of the femur in children: comparison of effectiveness and cost of several treatment methods. Orthopedics. 1997 Dec. 20(12):1131-6. [Medline].

  19. Mahaisavariya B, Laupattarakasem W. Late open nailing for neglected femoral shaft fractures. Injury. 1995 Oct. 26(8):527-9. [Medline].

  20. Robertson P, Karol LA, Rab GT. Open fractures of the tibia and femur in children. J Pediatr Orthop. 1996 Sep-Oct. 16(5):621-6. [Medline].

  21. Lefaivre KA, Starr AJ, Stahel PF, Elliott AC, Smith WR. Prediction of pulmonary morbidity and mortality in patients with femur fracture. J Trauma. 2010 Dec. 69(6):1527-35; discussion 1535-6. [Medline].

  22. Sartoretti C, Sartoretti-Schefer S, Ruckert R, Buchmann P. Comorbid conditions in old patients with femur fractures. J Trauma. 1997 Oct. 43(4):570-7. [Medline].

  23. Wu CL, Tseng IC, Huang JW, Yu YH, Su CY, Wu CC. Unstable pelvic fractures associated with femoral shaft fractures: a retrospective analysis. Biomed J. 2013 Mar-Apr. 36(2):77-83. [Medline].

Anteroposterior radiograph of a femur fracture in a 45-year-old man.
Anteroposterior radiograph of a femoral-shaft fracture in a 19-year-old man.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.