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Tibia and Fibula Fracture Medication

  • Author: Jeffrey G Norvell, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH  more...
 
Updated: Sep 17, 2015
 

Medication Summary

Drugs used to treat fractures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and analgesics. In addition, administer proper antibiotics and tetanus prophylaxis for open fractures.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs)

Class Summary

These drugs have analgesic and antipyretic activities. Their mechanism of action is not known, but they may inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and prostaglandin synthesis. Other mechanisms may involve inhibition of leukotriene synthesis, lysosomal enzyme release, lipoxygenase activity, neutrophil aggregation, and various cell-membrane functions.

Ibuprofen (Addaprin, Advil, Motrin, NeoProfen)

 

Usually DOC for treatment of mild to moderately severe pain, if no contraindications. Inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain, probably by decreasing activity of enzyme cyclooxygenase, which decreases prostaglandin synthesis.

Naproxen (Anaprox, Aleve, Naprelan, Naprosyn)

 

Used for relief of mild to moderately severe pain. Inhibits inflammatory reactions and pain by decreasing activity of enzyme cyclooxygenase, decreasing prostaglandin synthesis.

Ketoprofen (Active-Ketoprofen)

 

Inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins in body tissues by inhibiting at least 2 cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2)

May inhibit chemotaxis, may alter lymphocyte activity, decrease proinflammatory cytokine activity, and may inhibit neutrophil aggregation. These effects may contribute to its anti-inflammatory activity

Indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex)

 

Inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins in body tissues by inhibiting at least 2 cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoenzymes, COX-1 and COX-2

May inhibit chemotaxis, alter lymphocyte activity, decrease proinflammatory cytokine activity, and inhibit neutrophil aggregation; these effects may contribute to anti-inflammatory activity

Fenoprofen (Nalfon)

 

Inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins in body tissues by inhibiting at least 2 cyclooxygenase isoenzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2)

May inhibit chemotaxis, may alter lymphocyte activity, decrease proinflammatory cytokine activity, and may inhibit neutrophil aggregation. These effects may contribute to its anti-inflammatory activity

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Analgesics

Class Summary

Pain control is essential to quality patient care. It ensures patient comfort, promotes pulmonary toilet, and aids physical therapy regimens. Many analgesics have sedating properties that benefit patients who have sustained fractures.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Ofirmev, Aspirin Free Anacin, Mapap)

 

DOC for treatment of pain in patients with documented hypersensitivity to aspirin or NSAIDs, with upper GI disease, or taking oral anticoagulants.

Acetaminophen and codeine (Tylenol with Codeine #3, Capital/Codeine)

 

Drug combination indicated for treatment of mild to moderately severe pain.

Hydrocodone bitartrate and acetaminophen (Vicodin ES, Norco, Lortab, Vendrocet)

 

Drug combination indicated for relief of moderately severe to severe pain.

Oxycodone and acetaminophen (Percocet, Primlev, Roxicet, Endocet)

 

Drug combination indicated for relief of moderately severe to severe pain. DOC for aspirin-hypersensitive patients.

Morphine sulfate (Duramorph, Astramorph, Kadian, MS Contin)

 

DOC for narcotic analgesia because of its reliable and predictable effects, safety, and ease of reversibility with naloxone. Administered IV, may be dosed in a number of ways and commonly is titrated until desired effect obtained.

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Immunoglobulins

Class Summary

Patients who may not have been immunized against Clostridium tetani products should receive tetanus immune globulin.

Tetanus immune globulin (Hypertet S/D)

 

Used for passive immunization of any person with a wound that may be contaminated with tetanus spores.

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Vaccines, Inactivated, Bacterial

Class Summary

This agent is used for tetanus immunization. Booster injection in previously immunized individuals is recommended to prevent this potentially lethal syndrome.

Tetanus toxoid adsorbed or fluid

 

Used to induce active immunity against tetanus in selected patients. Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids are immunizing AOC for most adults and children >7 y. Necessary to administer booster doses to maintain tetanus immunity throughout life.

Pregnant patients should receive only tetanus toxoid, not a diphtheria antigen-containing product.

In children and adults, may administer into the deltoid or midlateral thigh muscles. In infants, preferred site of administration is midthigh laterally.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Jeffrey G Norvell, MD Clinical Assistant Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine

Jeffrey G Norvell, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Mark Steele, MD Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Chief Medical Officer, Truman Medical Center, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine

Mark Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Thomas M Cooper, MD Resident Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center

Thomas M Cooper, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society of Critical Care Medicine, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

David B Levy, DO, FAAEM Senior Consultant in Emergency Medicine, Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand; Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine

David B Levy, DO, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, Fellowship of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, American Medical Informatics Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH Chief of Emergency Medicine, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System; Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Michelle Ervin, MD Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Howard University Hospital

Michelle Ervin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, National Medical Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Shown is an intra-articular fracture of the medial condyle of the tibial plateau.
Standard anteroposterior radiograph of a tibial shaft fracture with intramedullary nail fixation. Note the commonly associated fibular fracture that is also apparent.
Radiograph demonstrating a displaced tibial shaft fracture with associated fibula fracture.
Type II tibial plateau fracture in a young active adult with good bone stock treated with percutaneous elevation and cannulated cancellous screw fixation without bone grafting.
Type III tibial plateau fracture with central depression in an elderly person treated surgically using percutaneous elevation, bone grafting, and cancellous screw fixation.
Tibial plateau fractures. Line drawings of Schatzker types I, II, and III tibial plateau fractures. Type I consists of a wedge fracture of the lateral tibial plateau, produced by low-force injuries. Type II combines the wedge fracture of the lateral plateau with depression of the lateral plateau. Type III fractures are classified as those with depression of the lateral plateau but no associated wedge fracture.
Tibial plateau fractures. Line drawings of Schatzker types IV, V, and VI tibial plateau fractures. Type IV is similar to type I fracture, except that it involves the medial tibial plateau as opposed to the lateral plateau. Greater force is required to produce this type of injury. Type V fractures are termed bicondylar and demonstrate wedge fractures of both the medial and lateral tibial plateaus. Finally, type VI fractures consist of a type V fracture along with a fracture of the underlying diaphysis and/or metaphysis.
Tibial plateau fractures. CT image through the tibial plateau shows a fracture of the posterior aspect of the lateral tibial plateau, which is the source of the lipohemarthrosis.
Tibial plateau fractures. Axial CT image through the tibial shows a fracture through the lateral tibial plateau with slight diastasis between the fragments. This is a Schatzker II injury.
Tibial plateau fractures. Coronal reformatted CT. This image demonstrates a bicondylar fracture of the tibial plateau along with a fracture of the tibial diaphysis, a Schatzker VI fracture. Note the articular incongruity.
Classification of tibial tuberosity fractures.
 
 
 
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