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Acute Subdural Hematoma

  • Author: Alex Koyfman, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH  more...
 
Updated: May 02, 2014
 

Overview

Because acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is not only the most common type of intracranial mass lesion, occurring in about one third of those with severe head injuries (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score < 9), but also associated with high mortality and morbidity rates, the emergent management of acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is critical. See the Glasgow Coma Scale calculator.

An acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is a rapidly clotting blood collection below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the first image below). Two further stages, subacute and chronic, may develop with untreated acute subdural hematoma (SDH). Generally, the subacute phase begins 3-7 days after acute injury (surgical literature favors 3d; radiologic literature favors 7d) (see the second image below). The chronic phase begins about 2-3 weeks after acute injury.

Acute subdural hematoma. Note the bright (white) i Acute subdural hematoma. Note the bright (white) image properties of the blood on this noncontrast cranial computed tomography (CT) scan. Note also the midline shift. Image courtesy of J. Stephen Huff, MD.
Subacute subdural hematoma. The crescent-shaped cl Subacute subdural hematoma. The crescent-shaped clot is less white than on the computed tomography (CT) scan of the acute subdural hematoma in the previous image. Despite the large clot volume, this patient was awake and ambulatory. Image courtesy of J. Stephen Huff, MD.

See also Subdural Hematoma, Subdural Hematoma Surgery, Imaging in Subdural Hematoma, Closed Head Trauma, Head Injury, and Forensic Autopsy of Blunt Force Trauma.

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Emergency Department Management

Consultation and/or transfer

Consult a neurosurgeon as soon as the diagnosis of subdural hematoma (SDH) is suspected.

If feasible, patients with head trauma should initially be transported to a hospital with a dedicated trauma team because this is associated with significantly better functional outcomes in survivors of subdural hematoma (SDH).[1] Initiate rapid transfer if another facility is required for diagnosis or management: Rapid transport to a trauma center with a promptly available neurosurgeon decreases mortality in patients with subdural hematoma (SDH).[2] Transfer may be emergent, with appropriate stabilization measures taken and with appropriately skilled personnel accompanying the patient.

Intubation and imaging

Consider endotracheal intubation when Glasgow Coma Score (GCS; see the Glasgow Coma Scale calculator) score is less than 12 or other indications are present; this guarantees airway protection during the diagnostic workup.

Obtain an immediate head computed tomography (CT) scan in patients with head trauma who experienced clear loss of consciousness (LOC), are symptomatic, are disoriented/amnestic, or have any focal neurologic signs. The presence of a focal neurologic sign following blunt head trauma is ominous.

Optimizing venous outflow and reducing ICP

Elevate the head of the bed to 30°, and make sure that the head and neck are maintained in a midline position to optimize venous outflow from the brain.

Hyperventilation to a target partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) of 30 mm Hg can reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) in the short term, although a pCO2 level less than 25 mm Hg is strongly discouraged.

Intravenous mannitol (0.25 g/kg) may be used to decrease ICP. However, glucocorticoids are not indicated for head trauma.

Hemostasis

Rapid reversal of anticoagulation with warfarin is key and has been shown to reduce hemorrhage progression and mortality for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH).[3] However, the potential benefit of reversing anticoagulation must be weighed against the individual risk.[4] Options include vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant factor VII (rfVIIa).

Vitamin K should be administered at 5-10 mg infused at 1 mg/min. This should be administered in all patients with anticoagulant-related ICH because it boosts synthesis of clotting factors and prevents rebound coagulopathy after FFP, PCC, or rfVIIa.[4]

FFP's dosage is individualized; generally 10-15 mL/kg is needed for full reversal. Immediate transfusion of 2 units of universal donor FFP reduced mortality rate in one study.[3]

The dose of PCC is individualized. It contains factors II, VII, IX, X. A small volume is needed compared with FFP. PCC can correct INR within minutes. Recent data show use of PCC is associated with improved outcome in patients with ICH.[5]

rfVIIa is administered at 10-100 mcg/kg (lower dose preferred due to risk of thromboembolic event at higher dosing). It has rapid onset. Improvement in mortality or functional outcome has not been shown.

Heparin may be fully reversed with 1 mg protamine sulfate/100 units heparin. Treatment for low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is the same, but only partial reversal can be achieved. For pentasaccharide anticoagulants such as fondaparinux, limited data support the use of rfVIIa. No specific reversal agents for direct thrombin inhibitors are noted; however, PCCs may have limited effectiveness in reversing rivaroxaban, and rfVIIa has theoretical potential in ICH patients on dabigatran. Data on antiplatelet reversal are lacking.[4]

Trephination

Burr holes are a temporizing option when rapid demise is associated with severe head trauma, especially if a herniation syndrome is clinically evident.[6] Generally, because the lesion represents clotted blood, the burr hole is not curative, and emergent craniotomy is necessary. However, Burr holes can guide surgical therapy when head CT imaging is unavailable. Begin on the side of the (first) dilated pupil.

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Neurosurgical Consultation

When a patient who experienced head trauma presents with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) score less than 12, consider immediate neurosurgical consultation while stabilizing the patient and while diagnostic maneuvers are in progress.

Small, asymptomatic, acute subdural hematomas (SDHs) may be managed by observation, serial examinations, and serial computed tomography (CT) scanning.

Operative intervention is required for patients with focal findings, neurologic worsening, hematoma greater than 1 cm thick, midline displacement or shift greater than 5 mm, or increased intracranial or posterior fossa pressure.[7]

The usual treatment for acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is craniotomy and evacuation by a neurosurgeon,[8] who, after making a large cranial flap, opens the dura. Then, the clot is removed with suction, cup forceps, and/or irrigation. Bleeding sites are identified and controlled.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Alex Koyfman, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Parkland Memorial Hospital

Alex Koyfman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Zachary Radwine, MD Resident Physician, Division of Emergency Medicine, OSF St Francis Medical Center

Zachary Radwine, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

David B Levy, DO, FAAEM Senior Consultant in Emergency Medicine, Waikato District Health Board, New Zealand; Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine

David B Levy, DO, FAAEM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, Fellowship of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, American Medical Informatics Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH Chief of Emergency Medicine, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System; Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Richard S Krause, MD Senior Clinical Faculty/Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Buffalo State University of New York School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

Richard S Krause, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Leung GK, Ng GK, Ho W, Hung KN, Yuen WK. Impact of a multidisciplinary trauma team on the outcome of acute subdural haematoma. Injury. 2012 Sep. 43(9):1419-22. [Medline].

  2. Tien HC, Jung V, Pinto R, Mainprize T, Scales DC, Rizoli SB. Reducing Time-to-Treatment Decreases Mortality of Trauma Patients with Acute Subdural Hematoma. Ann Surg. 2011 Jun. 253(6):1178-83. [Medline].

  3. Ivascu FA, Janczyk RJ, Junn FS, Bair HA, Bendick PJ, Howells GA. Treatment of trauma patients with intracranial hemorrhage on preinjury warfarin. J Trauma. 2006 Aug. 61(2):318-21. [Medline].

  4. Gerard C, Busl KM. Treatment of acute subdural hematoma. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2014 Jan. 16(1):275. [Medline].

  5. Hanger HC, Geddes JA, Wilkinson TJ, Lee M, Baker AE. Warfarin-related intracerebral haemorrhage: better outcomes when reversal includes prothrombin complex concentrates. Intern Med J. 2013 Mar. 43(3):308-16. [Medline].

  6. Zumofen D, Regli L, Levivier M, Krayenbühl N. Chronic subdural hematomas treated by burr hole trepanation and a subperiosteal drainage system. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jun. 64(6):1116-21; discussion 1121-2. [Medline].

  7. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW. Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006 Mar. 58(3 Suppl):S16-24; discussion Si-iv. [Medline].

  8. Mobbs R, Khong P. Endoscopic-assisted evacuation of subdural collections. J Clin Neurosci. 2009 May. 16(5):701-4. [Medline].

  9. Bell RS, Neal CJ, Lettieri CJ, Armonda RA. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Evolution and Current Surgical Management. Medscape. Available at http://cme.medscape.com/viewarticle/575753. Accessed: June 24, 2008.

  10. Cabral KP, Fraser GL, Duprey J, Gibbons BA, Hayes T, Florman JE. Prothrombin complex concentrates to reverse warfarin-induced coagulopathy in patients with intracranial bleeding. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2013 Jun. 115(6):770-4. [Medline].

  11. Cohen M, Scheimberg I. Subdural haemorrhage and child maltreatment. Lancet. 2009 Apr 4. 373(9670):1173; author reply 1173-4. [Medline].

  12. Nishijima DK, Dager WE, Schrot RJ, Holmes JF. The Efficacy of Factor VIIa in Emergency Department Patients With Warfarin Use and Traumatic Intracranial Hemorrhage. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 Mar. 17(3):244-251.

  13. Wind JJ, Leiphart JW. Images in clinical medicine. Bilateral subacute subdural hematomas. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 23. 360(17):e23. [Medline].

 
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Acute subdural hematoma. Note the bright (white) image properties of the blood on this noncontrast cranial computed tomography (CT) scan. Note also the midline shift. Image courtesy of J. Stephen Huff, MD.
Subacute subdural hematoma. The crescent-shaped clot is less white than on the computed tomography (CT) scan of the acute subdural hematoma in the previous image. Despite the large clot volume, this patient was awake and ambulatory. Image courtesy of J. Stephen Huff, MD.
Chronic subdural hematoma. The 3 cm, isodense crescent-shaped clot is resulting in midline shift.
 
 
 
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