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Postconcussive Syndrome Workup

  • Author: Eric L Legome, MD; Chief Editor: Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH  more...
 
Updated: Sep 16, 2015
 

Laboratory Studies

No specific laboratory studies are needed, unless concomitant illness is suspected or unless the diagnosis is unclear and believed to be of toxic or metabolic origin. While some newer studies have searched for evidence of specific proteins or biomarkers as predictive of PCS, there is no definitive correlations as of yet.

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Imaging Studies

Neurological examination and CT scan findings are frequently normal in patients with postconcussive syndrome; however, this does not confirm the absence of damage to the brain. Imaging modalities such as MRI, SPECT, and MEG have been shown to be more sensitive than CT at detecting brain injuries associated with postconcussive syndrome. These modalities have demonstrated an association between basal ganglia hypoperfusion and headaches, temporal lobe abnormalities and memory deficits, parietal lobe abnormalities and attention problems, and frontal lobe abnormalities and problems with executive function in patients with postconcussive syndrome. Interestingly, these imaging modalities have not born out associations between posttraumatic brain abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms in postconcussive syndrome.

It has been hypothesized that axonal injury at the time of trauma could underlie postconcussive syndrome. Shear strain on the neurons that leads to diffuse axonal injury can occur without CT abnormalities. However, a recent study of a biomarker for axonal injury, serum cleaved tau (C-tau), showed no correlation between C-tau levels at the time of injury and the later development of postconcussive syndrome.[14] Studies looking at serum levels of S-100B, a protein found most commonly in astrocytes, in patients with minor head injury have found conflicting results regarding a correlation between initial levels of the protein and development of postconcussive syndrome.[15]

In a study by Ramos-Zuniga et al, neuropsychological and spectroscopy testing confirmed the diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome in patients with mild head injury (MHI). According to the authors, spectroscopy revealed neurometabolite disturbances in 54% of cases, particularly N-acetylaspartate (Naa) and the Naa/lactate ratio in the frontal lobe. In addition, the authors noted that 55% of patients experienced physical disturbances such as headache and postural vertigo.[16]

CT scanning is used to determine the presence of intracranial abnormalities and skull fractures. In young patients with no loss of consciousness and a normal neurologic examination, CT scanning is of very low yield and is unlikely to be positive. Patients with postconcussive syndrome (PCS) usually do not present immediately after the trauma.

If a CT scan has already been obtained, the utility of a repeat scan is minimal in the absence of focal neurologic signs or unless the patient is at risk for delayed hemorrhage (eg, an elderly patient on warfarin.)

If a CT scan has not been obtained and if the patient had a loss of consciousness and a GCS of 15, the likelihood of finding an operable lesion is extremely limited. Unfortunately, these patients with symptoms and a normal examination may still harbor an injury that requires intervention. In general, a single head CT scan is still a reasonable, fast, and effective screening test in the significantly symptomatic patient, although it should be balanced by the risks of radiation, especially in children.

MRI, SPECT, and positron emission tomography (PET) scans are more sensitive than CT scans in detecting abnormalities associated with minor head injury and postconcussive syndrome.

An MRI obtained in the acute period has little clinical significance. If one is obtained, it should be obtained on an outpatient basis in conjunction with follow-up. Although traumatic lesions may be depicted on MRIs in patients with minor head injury and a normal nonenhanced CT scan, they rarely influence the acute clinical course.

An MRI, SPECT, or PET scan obtained 4-24 months after injury may reveal a variety of abnormalities, though this rarely influences treatment or outcome.

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Other Tests

Neuropsychological testing rarely is performed in the acute setting, although it may have some value in predicting the development of symptoms. A series of standardized tests and questionnaires are used to measure attention, language, memory, emotional functioning, and other neurobehavioral parameters.

The Rivermead Postconcussion Symptoms Questionnaire is used to quantify postconcussive syndrome symptoms.

Neuropsychological assessments may be used. These include the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and specific subtests (digit span and vocabulary), Trail Making Test, complex figure drawings (eg, Rey Osterreith), copy trials and memory trials, category tests, controlled oral word association (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task.

The objective personality measure, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI2), may be used.

The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Impact of Even Scale, Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test, and assessments of posttraumatic amnesia are used together as prognostic screening instruments for predicting postconcussive syndrome persistence.

In an exploratory factor and confirmatory factor analysis of a 19-item Postconcussion Symptom Scale broken up into 3 factors (neurocognitive, somatic, emotional), patients seen more than 14 days after the concussion injury had worse factor 3 (emotional) scores than those seen less than 14 days after injury. Females and patients with anxiety disorders had significantly worse (higher) scores on all 3 factors.[17]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Eric L Legome, MD Chief, Department of Emergency Medicine, Kings County Hospital Center; Professor Clinical, Department of Emergency Medicine, State University of New York Downstate College of Medicine

Eric L Legome, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Tina Wu, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University Medical Center, Bellevue Hospital Center

Tina Wu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, American Medical Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, Emergency Medicine Residents' Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Rachel Alt, MD Staff Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, New York University Bellevue Hospital

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Jon Mark Hirshon, MD, MPH, PhD Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine

Jon Mark Hirshon, MD, MPH, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Public Health Association, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH Chief of Emergency Medicine, Veterans Affairs Northern California Health Care System; Professor of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine

Trevor John Mills, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Jerry R Balentine, DO, FACEP, FACOEP Vice President, Medical Affairs and Global Health, New York Institute of Technology; Professor of Emergency Medicine, New York Institute of Technology College of Osteopathic Medicine

Jerry R Balentine, DO, FACEP, FACOEP is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Emergency Physicians, New York Academy of Medicine, American College of Osteopathic Emergency Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Osteopathic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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