Opioids/Benzodiazepines Poisoning Medication
- Author: Christopher P Holstege, MD; Chief Editor: Zygmunt F Dembek, PhD, MPH, MS, LHD more...
If patients present following exposure to aerosolized opioids or benzodiazepines, administration of the competitive antagonists naloxone and flumazenil, respectively, may be considered to reverse respiratory depression and coma.
Opioid antagonists competitively inhibit the binding of opioid agonists to the opioid receptors. The goal of this therapy is reinstitution of adequate spontaneous ventilation. In patients presenting with sedation of unknown etiology, the cautious administration of naloxone may be both diagnostic and therapeutic. Even in high doses, naloxone has an excellent safety profile.
DOC of opioid antagonists because of relatively short half-life, safety record, and availability.
Flumazenil is a competitive benzodiazepine antagonist that reverses the effects of benzodiazepines. However, benzodiazepine agonists must be used with caution because, when used to treat a potentially life-threatening condition (eg, seizure disorder), they may exacerbate the underlying disorder. If a patient ingests a drug that lowers the seizure threshold, such as a cyclic antidepressant, reversal may result in seizure or status epilepticus. Flumazenil is not recommended for indiscriminate use before a complete evaluation. If patients present with coma following aerosolized benzodiazepines exposure, flumazenil may be considered if the patient has respiratory depression and no history of long-term benzodiazepine use or seizure disorder. Use as a diagnostic and therapeutic agent for unsubstantiated drug-associated coma is controversial. A positive response to small titratable doses may obviate the need for endotracheal (ET) intubation.
Reverses effects of benzodiazepines in overdose by selectively antagonizing benzodiazepine receptor at GABA-A complex.
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