Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Chin Implants Workup

  • Author: Suzanne K Doud Galli, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
Updated: Apr 02, 2014

Imaging Studies

See the list below:

  • Photodocumentation
    • This is a basic need for all facial plastic surgery procedures.
    • In chin analysis, photography can be helpful to evaluate the patient for chin retrusion. The chin should be considered in its relation to the face shape and length and in reference to the nose. The basic views, full face, oblique, profile, and base, are adequate for this evaluation.
    • From the lateral view, the 0° meridian and other types of analysis can be used to determine the grade of retrusion and the desired augmentation. The lateral view is emphasized, but the full-face view is mandatory to evaluate chin width.
    • Photographs should be taken with the patient smiling and in repose. This provides additional information and documentation of labial competence.
  • Cephalometric study
    • This is an excellent method to document skeletal configurations.
    • Population-based comparison data are available.
    • This analysis may be more applicable to the osteoplastic technique.


See the list below:

  • Gonzalez-Ulloa bases his staging system on the 0° meridian.[2]
    • First-degree retraction describes the pogonion at less than 10 mm behind the 0° meridian.
    • Second-degree retraction is in the range of 10-20 mm.
    • Third-degree retraction is more than 20 mm.
Contributor Information and Disclosures

Suzanne K Doud Galli, MD, PhD Consulting Staff, Cosmetic Facial Surgery, Private Practice

Suzanne K Doud Galli, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Philip J Miller, MD 

Philip J Miller, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

David W Stepnick, MD Associate Professor, Departments of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery and Plastic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center

David W Stepnick, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Medical Association, Society of University Otolaryngologists-Head and Neck Surgeons, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Professor of Otolaryngology, Dentistry, and Engineering, University of Colorado School of Medicine

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Head and Neck Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cerescan;RxRevu;SymbiaAllergySolutions<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Symbia<br/>Received from Allergy Solutions, Inc for board membership; Received honoraria from RxRevu for chief medical editor; Received salary from Medvoy for founder and president; Received consulting fee from Corvectra for senior medical advisor; Received ownership interest from Cerescan for consulting; Received consulting fee from Essiahealth for advisor; Received consulting fee from Carespan for advisor; Received consulting fee from Covidien for consulting.

Additional Contributors

Jennifer P Porter, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Division of Communicative Science, Chevy Chase Facial Plastic Surgery

Jennifer P Porter, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Aufricht, G. Combined plastic surgery of the nose and chin; resume of twenty-seven years'' experience. Am J Surg. 1958 Feb. 95(2):231-6. [Medline].

  2. Gonzalez-Ulloa M. Quantitative principles in cosmetic surgery of the face (profiloplasty). Plast Reconstr Surg. 1962. 29:186-198.

  3. Gonzalez-Ulloa M, Stevens E. The role of chin correction in profileplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1968 May. 41(5):477-86. [Medline].

  4. Gibson FB, Calhoun KH. Chin position in profile analysis. Comparison of techniques and introduction of the lower facial triangle. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1992 Mar. 118(3):273-6. [Medline].

  5. Ricketts RM. The biologic significance of the divine proportion and Fibonacci series. Am J Orthod. 1982 May. 81(5):351-70. [Medline].

  6. Pitanguy I. Augmentation mentoplasty. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1968 Nov. 42(5):460-4. [Medline].

  7. White JB, Dufresne CR. Management and avoidance of complications in chin augmentation. Aesthet Surg J. 2011 Aug. 31(6):634-42. [Medline].

  8. Bain CJ, Odili J. Late infection of an alloplastic chin implant masquerading as squamous cell carcinoma. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012 Jan 28. [Medline].

  9. Cohen SR, Mardach OL, Kawamoto HK Jr. Chin disfigurement following removal of alloplastic chin implants. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1991 Jul. 88(1):62-6; discussion 67-70. [Medline].

  10. Costantino PD. Synthetic biomaterials for soft-tissue augmentation and replacement in the head and neck. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1994 Feb. 27(1):223-62. [Medline].

  11. Costantino PD, Friedman CD. Soft-tissue augmentation and replacement in the head and neck. General considerations. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 1994 Feb. 27(1):1-12. [Medline].

  12. Garner WL. Gore-Tex facial implants. Plastic Surgery Educational Foundation DATA Committee. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Dec. 100(7):1899-900. [Medline].

  13. Goldsmith D, Horowitz A, Orentlicher G. Facial skeletal augmentation using custom facial implants. Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2012 Mar. 20(1):119-34. [Medline].

  14. Gross EJ, Hamilton MM, Ackermann K, et al. Mersilene mesh chin augmentation. A 14-year experience. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 1999 Jul-Sep. 1(3):183-9; discussion 190. [Medline].

  15. Li KK, Cheney ML. The use of sliding genioplasty for treatment of failed chin implants. Laryngoscope. 1996 Mar. 106(3 Pt 1):363-6. [Medline].

  16. Maas CS, Merwin GE, Wilson J, et al. Comparison of biomaterials for facial bone augmentation. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990 May. 116(5):551-6. [Medline].

  17. Mahler D. Chin augmentation--a restrospective study. Ann Plast Surg. 1982 Jun. 8(6):468-73. [Medline].

  18. Matarasso A, Elias AC, Elias RL. Labial incompetence: a marker for progressive bone resorption in silastic chin augmentation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1996 Nov. 98(6):1007-14; discussion 1015. [Medline].

  19. McCarthy JG. Microgenia: a logical surgical approach. Clin Plast Surg. 1981 Apr. 8(2):269-78. [Medline].

  20. McCarthy JG, Ruff GL. The chin. Clin Plast Surg. 1988 Jan. 15(1):125-37. [Medline].

  21. McCarthy JG, Ruff GL, Zide BM. A surgical system for the correction of bony chin deformity. Clin Plast Surg. 1991 Jan. 18(1):139-52. [Medline].

  22. Moenning JE, Wolford LM. Chin augmentation with various alloplastic materials: a comparative study. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg. 1989. 4(3):175-87. [Medline].

  23. Morganroth GS. Combining chin-jowl implants with local anesthesia facial rejuvenation. Skin Therapy Lett. 2005 Jul-Aug. 10(6):6-9. [Medline].

  24. Niechajev I. Facial reconstruction using porous high-density polyethylene (medpor): long-term results. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2012 Aug. 36(4):917-27. [Medline].

  25. Pitanguy I, Martello L, Caldeira AM, et al. Augmentation mentoplasty: a critical analysis. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 1986. 10(3):161-9. [Medline].

  26. Rosen HM. Aesthetic guidelines in genioplasty: the role of facial disproportion. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995 Mar. 95(3):463-9; discussion 470-2. [Medline].

  27. Sclafani AP, Thomas JR, Cox AJ, et al. Clinical and histologic response of subcutaneous expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) and porous high-density polyethylene (Medpor) implants to acute and early infection. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1997 Mar. 123(3):328-36. [Medline].

  28. Strauss RA, Abubaker AO. Genioplasty: a case for advancement osteotomy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2000 Jul. 58(7):783-7. [Medline].

  29. Zide BM, Pfeifer TM, Longaker MT. Chin surgery: I. Augmentation--the allures and the alerts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999 Nov. 104(6):1843-53; discussion 1861-2. [Medline].

Graphic illustration of chin implant position.
Before and after.
Before and after.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.