Otalgia is defined as ear pain. Two separate and distinct types of otalgia exist. Pain that originates within the ear is primary otalgia; pain that originates outside the ear is referred otalgia.
Typical sources of primary otalgia are external otitis, otitis media, mastoiditis, and auricular infections. Most physicians are well trained in the diagnosis of these conditions. When an ear is draining and accompanied by tympanic membrane perforation, simply looking in the ear and noting the pathology can make the diagnosis. When the tympanic membrane appears normal, however, the diagnosis becomes more difficult.
Referred otalgia is a topic unto itself. Although many entities can cause referred otalgia, their relationship to ear pain must be identified. A categorical discussion of the workup, treatment, prognosis, demographics, and other issues is impossible because the various pathologies responsible for creating referred otalgia are so diverse.
Reports document that not all otalgia originates from the ear. Many remote anatomic sites share dual innervation with the ear, and noxious stimuli to these areas may be perceived as otogenic pain. By definition, referred otalgia is the sensation of ear pain originating from a source outside the ear.
To better understand referred otalgia, the physician first must understand the anatomic distribution of nerves associated with the ear. Irritation of these nerves, as well as irritation of distant branches of these nerves, can cause the perception of pain within the ear.
The picture below demonstrates the diversity of pathologies that can be the source of referred otalgia.
The sensory innervation of the ear is served by the auriculotemporal branch of the fifth cranial nerve (CN V), the first and second cervical nerves, the Jacobson branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, the Arnold branch of the vagus nerve, and the Ramsey Hunt branch of the facial nerve. Neuroanatomically, the sensation of otalgia is thought to center in the spinal tract nucleus of CN V. Not surprisingly, fibers from CNs V, VII, IX, and X and cervical nerves 1, 2, and 3 have been found to enter this spinal tract nucleus caudally near the medulla. Hence, noxious stimulation of any branch of the aforementioned nerves may be interpreted as otalgia.
In a study of US emergency department (ED) patients with otologic complaints, Kozin et al found that the most commonly diagnosed conditions were otitis media not otherwise specified (NOS) (60.6%), infected otitis externa NOS (11.8%), and otalgia NOS (6.8%). The data was drawn from a weighted total of 8,611,282 ED visits for otologic problems between 2009 and 2011. 
In a Korean study of 294 patients with otalgia, the prevalence of primary otalgia was found to be higher in children than in adults and in men than in women, while referred otalgia was more likely to occur in adults in general and in women in particular. The study, by Kim et al, also found that neuralgia occurred more frequently in women than in men with referred otalgia. 
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