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Ankle Impingement Syndrome Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Marc A Molis, MD, FAAFP; Chief Editor: Craig C Young, MD  more...
 
Updated: Sep 30, 2015
 

History

See the list below:

  • Anterior ankle impingement: Chronic ankle pain occurs, usually presenting as persistent pain or disability after an ankle sprain.
  • Anterolateral ankle impingement: Chronic vague pain over the anterolateral ankle occurs, usually associated with cutting and pivoting movements.
  • Syndesmosis impingement: Syndesmotic or a "high" ankle sprain occurs in up to 10% of all ankle injuries.
  • Posterior impingement: This syndrome is usually located posteriorly or posterolaterally following an ankle sprain.
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Physical

See the list below:

  • Anterior ankle impingement: Anterior ankle pain is present with a subjective feeling of stiffness or "blocking" on dorsiflexion. The pain is usually most severe with dorsiflexion, and dorsiflexion may be limited on examination. It is possible to do the anterior impingement test, in which the patient lunges forward maximally with the heel on the floor. If this test reproduces the pain, the test is positive and suggestive of anterior impingement. Swelling over the anterior aspect of the ankle may be present.
  • Anterolateral ankle impingement: Tenderness is noted along the lateral gutter and ATFL. Proprioception may be poor in these patients.
  • Syndesmosis impingement: Extreme tenderness along the syndesmosis and interosseous membrane is noted, along with pain on bimalleolar compression of the syndesmosis and on passive external rotation stress of the ankle.
  • Posterior impingement: The diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement is often difficult, requiring a high index of clinical suspicion. Posterior impingement often causes lingering pain, swelling, and catching of a synovial nodule, and it may be worse with forced plantar flexion. If further confirmation is necessary, local anesthetic can be injected around the posterior talus, and then the impingement test (reproduction of pain with passive plantarflexion of the ankle) can be performed without pain.
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Causes

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  • Anterior ankle impingement: Seen in activites that cause forced dosiflexion. Seen in soccer players while kicking (sometimes termed "footballer's ankle") and ballet dancers (especially with pliés, which are lunging maneuvers). Chronic damage or microtrauma leads to subsequent bone spur formation (anterior tibiotalar spurs), which cause subsequent limitation of movement and pain. See the image below.
    Radiograph of an os trigonum in a ballet dancer. IRadiograph of an os trigonum in a ballet dancer. Image courtesy of Dr. Craig Young.
  • Anterolateral ankle impingement: Common causes are inversion ankle injuries and sprains sustained while playing basketball (45%), volleyball (25%), or soccer (31%). Injury to the ligament or joint capsule may lead to synovitis, scar tissue, hypertrophied soft tissue, and, ultimately, impingement.
  • Syndesmosis impingement: Tearing of the syndesmosis or the ATFL results in chronic instability and extrusion of the anterolateral talus, leading to syndesmotic impingement. Ice hockey, football, and soccer players often sustain this type of injury.
  • Posterior impingement: Hypertrophy or tear of the posterior inferior TFL, transverse TFL, tibial slip, or pathologic labrum on the posterior ankle joint can lead to posterior ankle impingement, which may pinch on the os trigonum or posterior talus of calcaneus. This syndrome can also result from pathology of the os trigonum-talar process, ankle osteochondritis, flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis, subtalar joint disease, and fracture. Pain is caused by forced plantar flexion and push-off maneuvers, as seen in dancing, kicking, gymnastics, or downhill-running types of activities.[11] In ballet dancers, forcing turnout of the foot can predispose to this condition.[12]
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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Marc A Molis, MD, FAAFP Medical Director of Sports Medicine, Sports Medicine of Iowa

Marc A Molis, MD, FAAFP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Iowa Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Russell D White, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Truman Medical Center-Lakewood

Russell D White, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Sports Medicine, American Diabetes Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Craig C Young, MD Professor, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Community and Family Medicine, Medical Director of Sports Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin

Craig C Young, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

David T Bernhardt, MD Director of Adolescent and Sports Medicine Fellowship, Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics/Ortho and Rehab, Division of Sports Medicine, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

David T Bernhardt, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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  2. Ferkel RD. Ankle and foot injuries. Fu FH, Stone DA, eds. Sports Injuries. Baltimore, Md: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1994.

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  10. Hamilton WG. Tendonitis about the ankle joint in classical ballet dancers. Am J Sports Med. 1977 Mar-Apr. 5(2):84-8. [Medline].

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  16. Ferkel RD. Arthroscopy of the foot and ankle. Coughlin MJ, Mann RA, eds. Surgery of the Foot and Ankle. 7th ed. St Louis, Mo: Mosby; 1999. 1257-97.

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  18. Liu SH, Raskin A, Osti L, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of anterolateral ankle impingement. Arthroscopy. 1994 Apr. 10(2):215-8. [Medline].

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  20. Wiegerinck JI, Vroemen JC, van Dongen TH, Sierevelt IN, Maas M, van Dijk CN. The posterior impingement view: an alternative conventional projection to detect bony posterior ankle impingement. Arthroscopy. 2014 Oct. 30 (10):1311-6. [Medline].

  21. Smyth NA, Zwiers R, Wiegerinck JI, Hannon CP, Murawski CD, van Dijk CN, et al. Posterior hindfoot arthroscopy: a review. Am J Sports Med. 2014 Jan. 42 (1):225-34. [Medline].

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Radiograph of an os trigonum in a ballet dancer. Image courtesy of Dr. Craig Young.
 
 
 
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