Parotid Duct Injuries Treatment & Management

  • Author: Jose E Barrera, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
 
Updated: Sep 28, 2015
 

Medical Therapy

Wounds in the parotid region generally heal well with a low rate of infection, but patients with wounds that involve the oral cavity or require manipulation of the parotid duct through the oral cavity should probably receive prophylactic antibiotics for a brief time after primary closure. Saliva containing as many as 100,000,000 organisms per mL and representing as many as 190 different species may be inadvertently introduced to the wound. These species are both aerobes and anaerobes, and several of the more common species produce beta-lactamase, rendering them resistant to penicillin.

Routine cultures are not necessary because they are costly, demonstrate no growth in over 80% of cases, and rarely alter first-line therapy. Moreover, wounds subsequently manifesting signs of infection often have bacteriologic profiles differing from the initial cultures.

Wound care is the cornerstone of therapy; antibiotics cannot avert or cure infections in the setting of poor wound care. In regards to antibiotic therapy, err on the side of caution because the risk of antibiotic therapy is minimal, while the potential complications of wound infections are considerable. Prophylactic antibiotics should be continued for 5-7 days.

Selection of the appropriate antibiotic involves multiple factors, including culture results if obtained and available, drug sensitivities, patient age, drug interactions, expected compliance, and renal and hepatic function.

The drug of choice is amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin; adult dosage 500/125 mg PO tid or 875/125 mg PO bid). It is the most effective and economical choice for outpatient therapy, unless contraindicated because of penicillin allergy. Doxycycline is an alternative choice for oral therapy in patients allergic to penicillin (adult dosage 100 mg PO bid). Rocephin 1 g administered intramuscularly or intravenously is useful in patients whose compliance with dosage schedules is questionable.

In rare cases, human saliva has been shown to contain and occasionally transmit Clostridium tetani. Assess all patients for tetanus immune status and update their immunization as appropriate. Err on the side of caution when deciding to administer tetanus toxoid or tetanus immune globulin.

Some authors choose to use anticholinergic agents to suppress glandular function during healing or in an attempt to close a fistula or resolve a sialocele spontaneously. A commonly used agent is propantheline bromide (Pro-Banthine), which inhibits the action of acetylcholine at the postganglionic nerve endings of the parasympathetic nervous system (adult dose 15 mg PO qid half an hour prior to meals).

Sialocele and salivary fistula can frequently be managed nonoperatively with antibiotics, pressure dressings, and serial aspiration. Anticholinergic medications and the injection of botulinum toxin represent additional measures before resorting to surgical therapies such as tympanic neurectomy or parotidectomy.[3]

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Surgical Therapy

Meticulous wound care is the cornerstone of treatment for penetrating injuries in the parotid region. Copious irrigation has been shown to decrease the incidence of wound infection. Use isotonic sodium chloride solution, dilute Betadine, or dilute hydrogen peroxide to cleanse the wound thoroughly. Irrigation is best performed with a 10-mL syringe with an 18-gauge angiocatheter attached. Take care to avoid injection of the tissues and to prevent additional trauma. Careful debridement of devitalized tissue, particulate matter, and clot is necessary to reduce the infection risk and to improve the cosmetic result. Clean, surgically created wound margins allow for faster wound healing and better scarring.

Head and neck wounds, being in a cosmetically sensitive area, may be closed if they are less than 12 hours old and not obviously infected. These have been closed with a low incidence of infection. The low infection rate is probably related to the excellent regional blood supply and infrequency of edema in these areas. Perform closure in a simple interrupted fashion, avoiding layered closure with buried sutures.

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Preoperative Details

Appropriate consent must be obtained, including an explanation of the possible need for duct repair, ligation, or reimplantation into the oral mucosa. Informed consent includes a discussion of the possible complications, including but not limited to infection, hematoma, hypertrophic scarring, nerve injury, parotid fistula, sialocele, and death from anesthesia. Discuss expectant care with the patient as a viable alternate course of treatment that is probably less than ideal. Repair at initial presentation is technically simpler than in the case of delayed presentation with development of complications such as a fistula or sialocele.

Administer 1 dose of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics within 1 hour prior to the operation.

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Intraoperative Details

After initiation of general anesthesia, prepare and drape the head and neck in the usual sterile fashion. Plan the initial incision based on the level of suspected injury indicated by preoperative examination of the wound, the oral papilla, and cannulation of the duct with a silastic tube. All but the most distal injuries require a standard approach to the parotid gland. Distal injuries may sometimes be appropriately approached through an intraoral buccal mucosal incision, and often the facial wound is extensive enough to allow adequate visualization of key structures and their repair.

The most important initial step is the identification of the buccal branches of the facial nerve and the parotid duct itself. If the buccal branch was transected, repair it with fine sutures (8-0 to 10-0 nylon is appropriate) under microscopic aid. Use of a nerve stimulator intraoperatively and avoidance of the use of paralytic agents by the anesthesiologist can greatly aid in identification of facial nerve branches. The distal end of the parotid duct is identified by the silastic tube, which was placed via cannulation of the intraoral papilla. The proximal parotid duct can usually be identified by the flow of saliva into the wound. If not clearly identified, gentle pressure over the gland may cause an increased flow of saliva, facilitating identification. Once all key structures are identified, a decision is made regarding which repair technique to employ.

Distal lacerations, occurring at site C, may be treated in several ways. If the papilla is uninjured, the proximal portion may be dissected free and reimplanted into the papilla. The papilla may be gently dilated if this technique is chosen. Alternatively, if the papilla is injured or if the proximal duct does not reach the papilla, the duct may be reimplanted into the oral mucosa posterior to the papilla. This should be performed with fine interrupted absorbable sutures with meticulous approximation of duct epithelium to oral mucosa. This should probably be performed under loupe magnification because of the difficulty of using the surgical microscope deep in the oral cavity. If the distal injury does not leave enough duct to be reimplanted into the oral mucosa without undue tension, then the best decision is to ligate the proximal duct.

Injuries occurring over the masseter muscle, at site B, are the most common injuries to the parotid duct and may be treated by repair or ligation. Perform primary repair if enough length remains. Trim the edges cleanly and perform anastomosis over the silastic stent. A recent article advocates using an epidural catheter to guide the anastomosis.[4] A single layer of interrupted fine sutures (8-0 to 10-0 nylon or similar suture) is used to carefully reapproximate the severed ends with the surgical microscope or under loupe magnification. If a portion of the duct is damaged beyond repair or is missing, the proximal and distal duct should be ligated. Reports of attempts to use a vein graft to replace missing or damaged segments of parotid duct have generally found such attempts unsuccessful.

Laceration of the parotid duct over the masseter. Laceration of the parotid duct over the masseter. Note that a stent has been placed through the intraoral papilla and can be visualized in the wound exiting the distal end of the transected duct.

Injuries of the proximal duct near the parotid substance, at site A, are usually best treated by ligation of the duct. The amount of proximal duct remaining is usually insufficient to result in a useful repair. Laceration of the gland itself without disruption of the parotid duct may be oversewn with fine absorbable sutures (5-0 or 6-0 Vicryl).

If the surgeon is able to repair the duct over a stent, the stent is trimmed at the level of the oral papilla and sewn to the oral mucosa or around the maxillary second molar with a chromic suture. This is designed to hold the stent in place for the recommended 2-3 weeks while the injured duct heals and to help prevent stenosis at the repair site. It may also prevent postoperative edema in the region from collapsing the fragile duct. Patient tolerance of the stent is highly variable. Some patients require stent removal early or remove it themselves without untoward consequence.

Repair of the parotid duct over a silastic stent w Repair of the parotid duct over a silastic stent with interrupted sutures using loupe or microscopic magnification.

Sialendoscopy is established in the diagnostics and treatment of obstructive salivary gland diseases, but it has not previously been reported in patients with injuries to the Stensen duct. Sialendoscopy-assisted repair of a transected Stensen duct in zone B has been reported.[5] The duct injury itself, its location, and its severity could be visualized and precisely assessed and allowed intraductal assessment of the ductal tissue.

Most authors recommend a drain in the bed of the wound. This serves to drain any residual salivary leak and prevents early sialocele formation. Drains are removed once drainage is minimal and the skin has become adherent to the operative site.

The remaining facial and intraoral lacerations, as well as any incisions required for exposure, are then closed in the standard fashion.

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Postoperative Details

Place a compression dressing over the operative field postoperatively for several days. Perform routine drain care.

Continue antibiotic prophylaxis for 5-7 days. Antibiotic prophylaxis may be administered orally to prevent retrograde infection if the duct has been repaired over a stent that protrudes into the oral cavity.

If ductal injury required ligation of the proximal duct, expect marked temporary swelling of the gland followed by rapid glandular atrophy.

If leaking of saliva occurs as in the development of a fistula or sialocele, a pressure dressing should be continued or reinstituted. Intermittent aspiration of sialoceles has led to resolution in many cases. Anticholinergics may be used to temporarily decrease salivary flow in order to effect wound healing. Others have reported dividing the tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve (ie, Jacobsen nerve) as it runs through the middle ear. This serves to interrupt the preganglionic secretomotor fibers to the parotid gland. This measure only temporarily reduces salivary flow, but it may provide enough time for spontaneous closure of the salivary leak.

In the case of a chronic parotid duct fistula, an intraoral diversion technique to reestablish salivary flow in the setting of a nonfunctional parotid duct punctum has been described. In this case report, a fistula tract and the surrounding ellipse of skin were passed in the oral cavity and sutured to the buccal mucosa with 4-0 chromic sutures.[6] This allows for correction of a chronic fistula and simultaneous revision of a traumatic scar without need for stenting.

Alternatively, chronic fistula and sialocele have been medically managed with botulinum toxin type A.[7] In this case, the authors injected only 100 IU divided among 3 injection points in the superficial part of the parotid to stop salivary secretion. After 5 days, the sialocele disappeared and subsequent problems were related to the scar. Three months later, because of the reappearance of facial tension and the initial effectiveness of this dosage, 100 IU of botulinum toxin were again injected. Maintenance injections of 100 IU were performed every 3 months.

A study by Awana et al described a case in which, following traumatic avulsion of a parotid duct and facial vein, the parotid duct was surgically lengthened using the facial vein as a free graft.[8]

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Follow-up

No special follow-up is necessary over and above routine postoperative care.

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Complications

Complications may result from inadequate initial diagnosis and treatment or following appropriate care.

Persistent salivary fistula may be most troubling to the patient. If fistula occurs in the oral cavity, it is of no consequence and requires no further therapy. If the fistula occurs to the overlying skin, the patient experiences saliva dripping down the cheek. Initial expectant management, with or without anticholinergic medications, has led to resolution in many cases. Other cases have required surgical excision of the fistula tract with repair of the duct as previously described. Some have even required superficial parotidectomy for resolution. Anticholinergics may be beneficial in the treatment of fistulas.

Sialocele, ie, a collection of saliva beneath the skin, may occur if the duct leaks but no fistula forms. This may also result when the glandular substance of the parotid is disrupted but the parotid duct is intact. This condition usually resolves with intermittent aspiration and compression and rarely requires drain placement. Anticholinergics may be beneficial in the treatment of sialoceles.

Duct ligation may lead to early edema of the gland with accompanying pain from stretching of the capsule. This usually subsides spontaneously within 1-2 weeks as atrophy of the gland occurs. Late complications of ligating the duct include chronic infections of the remaining glandular substance.

Sialadenitis may result from manipulation of the intraoral papilla or from sialography and may require drainage and antibiotics.

Facial nerve injury and sensory nerve injury are well-recognized complications of surgery conducted in the region of the parotid duct, particularly in cases where trauma and blood extravasation have discolored the tissues and disrupted tissue planes.

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Future and Controversies

Some controversy exists regarding optimal treatment of isolated parotid duct injuries. Most authors agree that the treatment of choice is immediate repair over a stent whenever possible, and certainly this is indicated if other injuries, such as facial nerve injuries, are present and require surgical intervention. At least one study, however, documents successful expectant treatment of isolated parotid duct injuries.[9] Immediate repair may prevent some complications, such as fistula or sialocele formation, but it also places the patient at risk for other complications, such as iatrogenic facial nerve injury, even in experienced hands.

Exploration and repair also involves significantly increased costs because this requires surgery and inpatient care, whereas expectant care is managed on an outpatient basis. On the other hand, a missed injury requires treatment that is also costly—not just financially but also in terms of quality of life. The responsible physician must decide which treatment plan is appropriate to each unique patient-care situation. Certainly, wounds older than 24 hours should probably be managed expectantly because many will heal without untoward event.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Jose E Barrera, MD Medical Director, Texas Facial Plastic Surgery and ENT; Associate Professor, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Clinical Associate Professor, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio School of Medicine

Jose E Barrera, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Academy of Sleep Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Robert M Kellman, MD Professor and Chair, Department of Otolaryngology and Communication Sciences, State University of New York Upstate Medical University

Robert M Kellman, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Head and Neck Society, American Rhinologic Society, Triological Society, American Neurotology Society, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, Medical Society of the State of New York

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Professor of Otolaryngology, Dentistry, and Engineering, University of Colorado School of Medicine

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Head and Neck Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cerescan;RxRevu;SymbiaAllergySolutions<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Symbia<br/>Received from Allergy Solutions, Inc for board membership; Received honoraria from RxRevu for chief medical editor; Received salary from Medvoy for founder and president; Received consulting fee from Corvectra for senior medical advisor; Received ownership interest from Cerescan for consulting; Received consulting fee from Essiahealth for advisor; Received consulting fee from Carespan for advisor; Received consulting fee from Covidien for consulting.

Additional Contributors

Daniel G Becker, MD Assistant Professor, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Daniel G Becker, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous authors Don R Revis Jr, MD, and Michael Brent Seagle, MD, to the development and writing of this article.

References
  1. Nicoladoni. Ueber Fisteln des Ductus Stenonianus. Verh Dtsch Ges Chir. 1896. 81.

  2. Morestin H. Contribution a l'etude du traitement des fistules salivaraires consecutives aux blessures de guerre. Bull Soc Chir. 1917. 43:845.

  3. Gordin EA, Daniero JJ, Krein H, Boon MS. Parotid gland trauma. Facial Plast Surg. 2010 Dec. 26(6):504-10. [Medline].

  4. Sujeeth S, Dindawar S. Parotid duct repair using an epidural catheter. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Jul. 40(7):747-8. [Medline].

  5. Koch M, Iro H, Bozzato A, Zenk J. Sialendoscopy-assisted microsurgical repair of traumatic transection of Stensen's duct. Laryngoscope. 2013 Oct 5. [Medline].

  6. Doctor VS, Rafii A, Enepekides DJ, Tollefson TT. Intraoral transposition of traumatic parotid duct fistula. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2007 Jan-Feb. 9(1):44-7. [Medline].

  7. Arnaud S, Batifol D, Goudot P, Yachouh J. [Non-surgical management of parotid gland and duct injuries: interest of botulinum toxin]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet. 2008 Feb. 53(1):36-40. [Medline].

  8. Awana M, Arora SS, Arora S, Hansraj V. Reconstruction of a traumatically transected Stensen's duct using facial vein graft. Ann Maxillofac Surg. 2015 Jan-Jun. 5 (1):96-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  9. Tachmes L, Woloszyn T, Marini C, Coons M, Eastlick L, Shaftan G, et al. Parotid gland and facial nerve trauma: a retrospective review. J Trauma. 1990 Nov. 30(11):1395-8. [Medline].

  10. Etoz A, Tuncel U, Ozcan M. Parotid duct repair by use of an embolectomy catheter with a microvascular clamp. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Jan. 117(1):330-1. [Medline].

  11. Hwang K, Cho HJ, Battuvshin D, Chung IH, Hwang SH. Interrelated buccal fat pad with facial buccal branches and parotid duct. J Craniofac Surg. 2005 Jul. 16(4):658-60. [Medline].

  12. Steinberg MJ, Herrera AF. Management of parotid duct injuries. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2005 Feb. 99(2):136-41. [Medline].

 
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Anatomy of the parotid region. Line A connecting the tragus to the midportion of the upper lip estimates the general location of the parotid duct, which lies along the middle third of this line.
Laceration of the parotid duct over the masseter. Note that a stent has been placed through the intraoral papilla and can be visualized in the wound exiting the distal end of the transected duct.
Repair of the parotid duct over a silastic stent with interrupted sutures using loupe or microscopic magnification.
 
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