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Cheek Reconstruction Procedures Treatment & Management

  • Author: Mimi S Kokoska, MD; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
 
Updated: Mar 07, 2016
 

Medical Therapy

The treatment of cheek defects is almost exclusively surgical. The only nonsurgical option is healing by secondary intention. However, situations that allow for favorable results with this option are limited. Healing by secondary intention is most effective for wounds associated with concave surfaces, such as the temple and medial canthus. Defects that are small and superficial and are not closely associated with the eyelid or lip are also well suited for this form of healing. However, exercise caution because wound contracture in the cheek can lead to distortion of the lower eyelid or upper lip. An occlusive dressing and some form of antibiotic ointment, used to keep moisture out of the wound and to minimize bacterial growth, provide the best results for a wound allowed to heal by secondary intention.

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Surgical Therapy

Surgical reconstruction of cheek defects can be divided into a number of options, including primary closure, skin grafts, local flaps, soft tissue expansion to accomplish primary closure or to facilitate local flaps, and microsurgical free flaps. The rubric of local flaps can be further subdivided to include advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps. Occasionally, a complex case may benefit from a combination of a microvascular free flap or regional flap with a local flap and skin graft. If the underlying bony skeleton or dentition is significantly defective, adequate three-dimensional projection should be provided by the reconstruction or with a prosthesis for optimal results.

A study by Hayashi et al of 26 patients examined factors influencing the choice of reconstruction method (ie, skin graft, local flap, or free flap) after cheek melanoma excision. In the study, skin grafts were used in 12 patients, local flaps in seven others, and free flaps in another seven patients. The investigators found that skin grafts were used in older persons with thick melanomas, because of the general condition of these patients, but that they were also used in patients with a variety of tumor thicknesses. Free flaps were often employed in patients with skin defects over a large area, as well as in those with thicker tumors, with 40 cm being the approximate dividing line between defects treated with free flaps and those reconstructed with local ones.[3]

Primary closure

Wide undermining and subsequent primary closure can close most small defects of the cheek (< 2 cm, central). The degree of surrounding skin laxity predicates this closure. Older patients, who have increased skin mobility and more pronounced rhytides, are ideal candidates for this form of reconstruction. Closure of traumatic defects and postexcisional defects follow the same principles. Pay attention to the position of the final scar, which should rest parallel to or within a relaxed skin tension line (RSTL).

Direct closure of a circular defect leads to a standing cone deformity on both ends of the wound. Therefore, the defect is most commonly converted to an ellipse with 30° apices following a plane parallel to RSTLs. Wide subcutaneous undermining allows for a tension-free closure. The only disadvantage of this technique is that the wound is lengthened. Wound length can be diminished with M-plasties (see the images below). A potential disadvantage of M-plasty is that the limbs of the "M" are not quite parallel to the RSTLs, which may result in a more noticeable scar.

Mid-cheek defect. Mid-cheek defect.
Mid-cheek defect reconstructed with M-plasties to Mid-cheek defect reconstructed with M-plasties to shorten the length of the final closure.
Mid-cheek defect reconstructed with M-plasties. On Mid-cheek defect reconstructed with M-plasties. One-month follow-up result.

Other complex forms of primary closure include running W-plasty, Z-plasty, and geometric broken line closure (GBLC). These techniques are frequently used in scar revision and can also be applied advantageously in primary reconstruction of a defect. In some cases, an oval cheek defect is positioned with the widest diameter oriented perpendicular to the RSTL. Therefore, the orientation of primary closure that results in the least amount of wound tension would cause a lengthy scar perpendicular to the RSTL. In these cases, W-plasty, Z-plasty, or GBLC can be used to reorient the scar primarily and provide better scar camouflage.

Skin grafts

Skin grafting provides a simple and expeditious alternative to other forms of reconstruction. This is one of the least cosmetically satisfying forms of correction because of the unique contour of the cheek and the poor tissue match of the donor site skin with the sun-exposed cheek area. However, skin grafts play a significant role in certain circumstances. For example, a patient with (1) a large (>4 cm) defect, (2) a high-grade skin neoplasm with questionable margins or perineural invasion, (3) poor tolerance of prolonged periods of anesthesia, or (4) a third-degree burn over substantial portions of the face may benefit from immediate wound coverage and possible secondary reconstruction.

Skin grafts may be harvested as full-thickness skin grafts (FTSGs) from areas such as the supraclavicular region and the preauricular and postauricular creases. Split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) can be harvested from a wide variety of sites, including the lateral thigh, upper arm, and abdomen.[4] FTSGs from the areas mentioned provide a reasonable color match for cheek defects; however, the success rate of STSGs is higher than the success rate of FTSGs. STSGs are more likely to contract and are less likely to match the color of the defect site than FTSGs. Both STSGs and FTSGs can leave a considerable contour deficit if the wound is deep. Small slit incisions in the graft and absorbable tacking sutures that essentially spot weld the graft to the recipient base can be used to improve graft attachment to the site. An FTSG can be expected to contract 10-15%. An STSG is likely to contract up to 25-30% over time.

Dress the site of the recipient wound with a bolster. Numerous bolster materials are available, including Vaseline gauze or Xeroform bolster secured with sutures attached to the peripheral edges of the wound. These dressings decrease the chances of hematoma or seroma formation and graft failure. This point is important because skin grafts rely on plasma imbibition for the first 48-72 hours, followed by ingrowth of vascular buds. Collections beneath the graft may inhibit angiogenesis. STSGs leave a donor site that requires an occlusive dressing until the wound has reepithelialized. The donor site of FTSGs requires undermining and primary closure.

A retrospective study by Ebrahimi et al found advantages to local flaps over skin grafts in cheek reconstruction. The study, in which 20 patients underwent treatment with local flaps and the rest were treated with skin grafts, all following skin tumor excision, reported that after 2 weeks the local flap patients demonstrated greater patient satisfaction, tissue coordination, and skin color improvement than did the graft patients. Better improvement in skin color was still seen in the flap group at 12-month follow-up.[5]

Local flaps

Advancement flaps

Advancement flaps require linear advancement of tissue in a single vector to assist in closure of the primary wound. Usually, secondary movement of local tissue in the direction opposite the movement of the primary flap is also required. Wide local undermining enables the movement of this tissue. Patients with a greater degree of skin laxity are better suited for this form of closure. Advancement flaps are typically random, relying on the subdermal plexus for blood supply.

Although advancement flaps may be single-pedicled or bipedicled, single-pedicled flaps are generally preferable in cheek reconstruction. Bipedicled flaps are better suited to the forehead. The exception to this rule is the V-Y subcutaneous island advancement flap, which is based on subcutaneous vessels and muscular perforators.[6, 7]

Medial cheek defects are suitable for local advancement flaps. The medial cheek is amenable to reconstruction with local or cervicofacial advancement flaps. In designing these flaps, situate the flap adjacent to the wound, using the borders of the wound as the borders of the flap. Ideally, place the flap borders parallel to RSTLs or within lines that separate anatomic subunits, such as the melolabial or preauricular creases. The Burrow triangles are usually resected at the lateral base of the flap to allow for increased reach and to remove a dog-ear deformity. Z-plasties can be used to achieve a similar effect.

Transposition flaps

Transposition flaps rotate skin from an area of relative laxity on a pivotal point located at the base of the flap pedicle to an area of skin deficit. As the arc of rotation increases, so does the dog-ear deformity at the flap's base. Certain similarities exist between transposition and rotation flaps. The major difference is that the axis of the transposition flap is straight, whereas the axis of the rotation flap is curvilinear. Transposition flaps can be used for a wide variety of defects in the cheek. The downside of this subgroup of flaps is the potential for formation of a trapdoor deformity, in which the borders of the transposed skin are raised above or below the surrounding native skin. Forms of transposition flaps include the rhombic flap, the Dufourmentel flap, Z-plasties, the bilobed flap, and the note flap.

The rhombic flap is the classic form of transposition flap. Four reconstructive options exist for each of the flaps designed. This versatile flap is elevated in a subcutaneous plane and is typically random.

Bilobed flaps use a flap that is slightly smaller than the existing defect and are used to transpose skin from an area of relative skin excess to an area of skin deficit. These flaps are typically based on a random blood supply. The first lobe of the flap is used to fill in the existing defect, and the second lobe is used to fill the defect created by the first lobe. The practicality of this flap is based on skin laxity in the donor site sufficient enough to allow for primary closure. This flap is better suited for moderate-to-large central cheek defects, using preauricular skin as the donor site. One of its primary disadvantages is that the line of the flap may not correspond to the natural anatomic lines of the face.

Melolabial flaps can be used as transposition flaps, particularly for the medial cheek. Melolabial flaps are based on a branch of the facial artery or are designed with a random blood supply. These flaps can be transposed directly or pedicled subcutaneously.

Rotation flaps

Rotation flaps, like other local facial flaps, are elevated subcutaneously and are usually based randomly, relying on the subdermal plexus (see the images below). However, deep-plane musculocutaneous rotation flaps have been described for closure of large cheek defects. The proposed advantage of this deeper-plane dissection is similar to the rationale for deep-plane facelifts.

Large medial cheek defect. Large medial cheek defect.
Large medial cheek defect. Reconstruction with a c Large medial cheek defect. Reconstruction with a cervicofacial rotation flap.
Eight-month follow-up result. Reconstruction with Eight-month follow-up result. Reconstruction with a cervicofacial rotation flap to correct a large medial cheek defect.

Rotation flaps are designed adjacent to the defect and are rotated about a pivot point opposite the flap incision (see the images below). The flap incision is semicircular and carried into a line that separates anatomic subunits. The medial cheek is an appropriate area for this flap because the incision line can be started in the subciliary crease and carried down into the preauricular crease. The dog-ear deformity created in the region of the pivot point must be excised. Frequently, a suture must be used in the region of the lateral orbital rim to suspend the superolateral portion of the flap.

Large lateral cheek and tragal defect. Large lateral cheek and tragal defect.
Cheek reconstruction with cervicofacial rotation f Cheek reconstruction with cervicofacial rotation flap, 3-month follow-up result.

A study by Liu et al suggested that for defects of the medial cheek and adjacent regions, reconstruction with a lateral cheek rotation flap combined with Z-plasty has advantages over the use of a conventional cervicofacial flap. According to the investigators, whose study included nine reconstruction cases, the rotation flap/Z-plasty procedure is simpler, requires a shorter flap incision and minimal undermining, and avoids such complications as distal flap necrosis and lower lid ectropion.[8]

Interpolation flaps

The most recognizable type of interpolation flap is the paramedian forehead flap, based on the supratrochlear vessels. The paramedian forehead flap is a true axial flap, which is best suited for reconstruction of large nasal defects. However, it can be used in certain circumstances for large medial cheek defects.

Soft tissue expansion

Soft tissue expansion can be used in the reconstruction of cheek defects in areas that lack adequate skin laxity or in situations in which a large defect is expected. The purpose of the implant is to provide a larger surface area of tissue from which a defect can be resurfaced. Slow expansion of skin over a slowly enlarging subcutaneous mass, known as mechanical creep, is achieved through gradual inflation of the subcutaneous implant with saline starting approximately 2 weeks after insertion. The use of rapid intraoperative expansion devices can produce biological creep, which is a phenomenon that displaces the mucopolysaccharide ground substance and causes parallel realignment of collagen fibers.

Tissue expanders cause slight thickening of the dermis and slight thinning of the epidermis. The disadvantages of implants include the possibility of infection, exposure or extrusion, flap necrosis, and alopecia in the male cheek.

Microsurgical free flaps

Large deep defects of the cheek that cannot be repaired with local flap closure, especially those in which the skin is completely penetrated, can be reconstructed with microsurgical free flaps. Depending on exact tissue requirements, the fasciocutaneous scapular flap, radial forearm flap, or the myocutaneous rectus flap can be used. Typically, the superficial temporal or facial vessels are used for vessel anastomoses. The fasciocutaneous scapular flap and the radial forearm flap can be folded to provide both external and internal skin lining. The radial forearm flap is often the flap of choice in the thinner portion of the cheek near the mouth, whereas the scapular flap is usually more suitable for larger defects or in the thicker, more lateral aspect of the cheek. The rectus flap can provide bulk, when necessary, and can be skin grafted to provide an internal mucosal surface. Achieving good contour with free tissue transfer can be challenging, but obtaining good tissue color and texturematchisevenmoredifficult.

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Complications

The usual complications of facial plastic surgery must be considered during cheek reconstruction. The most serious of these complications is hematoma, which generally occurs postoperatively within the first 12 hours. Hematoma may threaten the viability of a flap and lead to flap necrosis. As with many surgical mishaps, the best treatment is prevention via meticulous intraoperative hemostasis. A large cervicofacial flap may require a drain to prevent a collection. A hematoma should be drained expeditiously in a sterile environment.

Careful preoperative evaluation should determine if a patient may be hypocoagulable. Patients should discontinue aspirin use 2 weeks prior to surgery. Make arrangements for alternative forms of perioperative anticoagulation for patients who take warfarin. Patients are also advised to avoid large doses of vitamin E preoperatively. Smoking is strongly discouraged because of its detrimental effects on the dermal microvasculature.

Partial or complete flap necrosis is a potential complication that generally occurs secondary to hematoma. Partial necrosis usually manifests as epidermolysis. Local wound therapy and healing by secondary intention are generally the best methods to use when approaching partial necrosis. Complete flap necrosis can be managed as above or closed with a skin graft. However, full-thickness skin graft (FTSG) or split-thickness skin graft (STSG) closure may leave a less aesthetically pleasing outcome than healing by secondary intention.

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Future and Controversies

Reconstruction of the cheek requires a thoughtful approach to the etiology of the defect, the functional status of the patient, and the best solution with the least morbidity. The prominence, dynamic function, and contour of the cheek make it a challenging structure to repair. A wide variety of options are available, ranging from a simple skin graft to microvasculature free tissue transfer. However, the reconstructive flap must suit the defect and the patient. Likewise, the surgeon must be able to use a wide variety of reconstructive options should an alternative be required.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Mimi S Kokoska, MD Physician, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Aurora Health Care

Mimi S Kokoska, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Association for Physician Leadership, American College of Surgeons, American Head and Neck Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Stephen Prendiville, MD 

Stephen Prendiville, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

David W Stepnick, MD Associate Professor, Departments of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery and Plastic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, MetroHealth Medical Center

David W Stepnick, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Medical Association, Society of University Otolaryngologists-Head and Neck Surgeons, American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Professor of Otolaryngology, Dentistry, and Engineering, University of Colorado School of Medicine

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Head and Neck Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cerescan;RxRevu;SymbiaAllergySolutions<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Symbia<br/>Received from Allergy Solutions, Inc for board membership; Received honoraria from RxRevu for chief medical editor; Received salary from Medvoy for founder and president; Received consulting fee from Corvectra for senior medical advisor; Received ownership interest from Cerescan for consulting; Received consulting fee from Essiahealth for advisor; Received consulting fee from Carespan for advisor; Received consulting fee from Covidien for consulting.

Additional Contributors

Terance (Terry) Ted Tsue, MD Vice-Chairman for Administrative Affairs, Professor, Residency Program Director, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kasnas School of Medicine

Terance (Terry) Ted Tsue, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Association for Research in Otolaryngology, American Head and Neck Society, Johns Hopkins Medical and Surgical Association, American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, Missouri State Medical Association, Phi Beta Kappa, Society of University Otolaryngologists-Head and Neck Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Zide BM. Deformities of the lips and cheeks. In: McCarthy JG, ed. Plastic Surgery. WB Saunders Co. 1990.

  2. Kuehnemund M, Bootz F. Reconstruction of the cheek. Facial Plast Surg. 2011 Jun. 27(3):284-9. [Medline].

  3. Hayashi T, Furukawa H, Oyama A, et al. An analysis of cheek reconstruction after tumor excision in patients with melanoma. J Craniofac Surg. 2014 Mar. 25(2):e98-101. [Medline].

  4. Liu WW, Yang AK, Ou YD. The harvesting and insetting of a chimeric anterolateral thigh flap to reconstruct through and through cheek defects. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Aug 16. [Medline].

  5. Ebrahimi A, Ashayeri M, Rasouli HR. Comparison of Local Flaps and Skin Grafts to Repair Cheek Skin Defects. J Cutan Aesthet Surg. 2015 Apr-Jun. 8 (2):92-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  6. Kim JY, Chung S, Chung YK. Croissant-shaped v-y advancement flap with 2 horns for repair of small- and medium-sized facial defects. J Craniofac Surg. 2011 Sep. 22(5):1781-4. [Medline].

  7. Chen WL, Yang ZH, Zhang DM, Huang ZQ, Fan S, Wang L. Reconstruction of Major Full Cheek Defects With Combined Extensive Pedicled Supraclavicular Fasciocutaneous Island Flaps and Extended Vertical Lower Trapezius Island Myocutaneous Flaps After Ablation of Advanced Oral Cancer. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2011 Aug 17. [Medline].

  8. Liu X, Liu Y, Chen K, et al. Reconstruction of skin defects in the medial cheek using lateral cheek rotation flap combined with Z-plasties. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 Dec. 68 (12):e183-8. [Medline].

  9. Boutros S, Zide B. Cheek and eyelid reconstruction: the resurrection of the angle rotation flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Oct. 116(5):1425-30; discussion 1431-3. [Medline].

  10. Futran ND, Mendez E. Developments in reconstruction of midface and maxilla. Lancet Oncol. March 2006. 7(3):249-58. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. Moore BA, Wine T, Netterville JL. Cervicofacial and cervicothoracic rotation flaps in head and neck reconstruction. Head Neck. 2005 Dec. 27(12):1092-101. [Medline].

 
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Mid-cheek defect.
Mid-cheek defect reconstructed with M-plasties to shorten the length of the final closure.
Mid-cheek defect reconstructed with M-plasties. One-month follow-up result.
Large medial cheek defect.
Large medial cheek defect. Reconstruction with a cervicofacial rotation flap.
Eight-month follow-up result. Reconstruction with a cervicofacial rotation flap to correct a large medial cheek defect.
Large lateral cheek and tragal defect.
Cheek reconstruction with cervicofacial rotation flap, 3-month follow-up result.
Diagram of the sensory and motor supply of the face.
 
 
 
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