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Dacryocystorhinostomy Treatment & Management

  • Author: S Valentine Fernandes, MBBS, MCPS, FRCSEd, FRACS, FACS, LLB; Chief Editor: Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA  more...
 
Updated: Mar 10, 2016
 

Intraoperative Details

The operation is performed with the patient under local or general anesthesia. The nose is packed with a solution containing 2 mL of 1:1000 epinephrine and 2 mL of 4% Xylocaine. The packing is left in the nose for 10 minutes. A 30° endoscope, 4 mm in diameter, is used. The site of operation, in the area of the anterior attachment of the middle turbinate, is injected with 1% Xylocaine and 1:100,000 epinephrine solution.

The assistant passes a 20-gauge illuminated fiberoptic light probe (eg, Endo-illuminator, Storz) through the upper or lower canaliculus into the lacrimal sac. The light is located endoscopically on the lateral wall of the nose, and its position is noted. The endoscope light may need to be dimmed to visualize the transilluminated light. This position corresponds to the posterior end of the lacrimal sac where it overlies the lacrimal bone.

A 1-cm diameter circle of mucosa is removed at this site of transillumination to expose the underlying bone. An Ellman Surgitron Radiosurgery Unit provides good hemostasis for this excision of mucosa. A portion of the uncinate process may also require removal to gain access. The underlying bone is removed with a drill. Some authorities advocate the use of the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser for this bone removal.

The thick bone of the frontal process of the maxilla is encountered anteriorly. The infundibulum or an anterior ethmoidal cell may overlie the lacrimal sac. After the position of the lacrimal sac wall is highlighted and confirmed, the light probe is removed. Reprobing with a metal probe allows tenting of the medial wall of the lacrimal sac. Some authorities inflate the lacrimal sac with methylcellulose via the upper or lower canaliculus for easier identification and manipulation. The lacrimal sac is opened with a 45° cutting forceps, and the opening is enlarged to approximately 1 cm, particularly in the inferior direction. No attempt is made at designing flaps.

Metal stents attached to silastic tubing at either end (eg, O'Donoghue DCR set) are passed through the upper and lower canaliculi and recovered through the nose with a Blakesley forceps. The metal stents are cut from the tubing, which is then stabilized to form a continuous loop around the canaliculi. This loop may be a knot or threading across butterfly 23-gauge tubing by two 16-gauge Insyte needles (Becton-Dickinson Autoguard). Alternatively, some authorities advocate the use of an otologic T tube as a stent.[3]

A retrospective study by Longari et al found good results in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy that did not use silicone intubation. In the study, of 84 patients (89 procedures), the rate of success at 18-month follow-up—ie, absence of epiphora and dacryocystitis and ostium patency demonstrated by fluorescein irrigation—was 82.2% in patients who received stents and 88.6% in those who did not.[4]

The revision dacryocystorhinostomy is ideally suited for the neophyte endoscopic surgeon. As a result of the preexisting bone deficiency from past surgery, a light probe is not necessary because the metal probe can tent and outline the lacrimal sac area. However, scarring from previous surgery may obscure the anatomy and cause some difficulty.

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Postoperative Details

Instruct the patient not to blow the nose strenuously for 2 weeks. Tobramycin eye drops are prescribed to be used 3 times daily for 10 days. Saline irrigations of the nasal cavity 3 times per day are recommended.

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Follow-up

The patient is reviewed 10 days postoperatively, and the nose is cleaned. Future reviews are planned as necessary. The tubing may be removed 2-6 months after surgery by cutting the exposed part at the medial canthus. The patient is then instructed to blow the nose strenuously into a paper tissue. The tubing remnants are then withdrawn through the nose with Killian nasal packing forceps. Excessive granulation formation around the new ostium may require earlier removal of the tubing. If a T tube is used, it may be left in the lacrimal sac for 3-6 months.

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Complications

Intraoperative complications

Excessive uncontrollable bleeding may require abandoning the operation and reattempting it at a later date. Orbital fat may be exposed. This is best left well alone. Damage to the medial rectus and superior oblique may cause diplopia. Blindness may occur from damage to the intraorbital vessels or optic nerve.

Postoperative complications

Epistaxis may occur within 10 days. Nasal packing is required, and oral antibiotics are indicated. Infection in the nose or orbit may also require antibiotics.

Adhesions may be minimized by meticulous surgery and by avoiding trauma to the middle turbinate and septum or by resecting the anterior half of the middle turbinate.

Cheesewiring of the canaliculi may occur if the stenting is too tight. The stent may need to be loosened or removed. If the stent is too loose, prolapse of the stent into the eye may occur. The stent may need tightening.

The sump syndrome may occur if the rhinostoma is small and high up in the lacrimal sac. This causes tears and mucus to accumulate in the sac and discharge into the eye.

Pyogenic granulomata may occur at the puncta or the site of rhinostomy if the tubing is left in too long. Urgent removal of the tubing is indicated.

Persistent watering may indicate scarring of the rhinostoma and may require reoperation.

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Outcome and Prognosis

Various success rates for primary endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy are quoted at 82-96%. In the most favorable series, the follow-up care range was 6-12 months.[5]

In revision endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy for failed primary external dacryocystorhinostomy, success rates are approximately 75%.

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Future and Controversies

Progress in surgical technique must be accounted for by facilitating the operative technique, by reducing the complication rate, or by increasing the success rate of the operation. Unfortunately, financial considerations must also be met within these confines. A 2007 report averred that endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy is more cost effective than external dacryocystorhinostomy, despite having a lower success rate and greater usage of resources.[6]

The endoscopic technique has several advantages.[1] With the advance of laser technology, various modifications of approach will be defined. The translacrimal transnasal laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy using the neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser was described in 1997.[7]

Failure rates may be reduced by decreasing the adhesions and stenosis at the nasal stoma. Mitomycin C has recently been put to such use, but its efficacy is not conclusive.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

S Valentine Fernandes, MBBS, MCPS, FRCSEd, FRACS, FACS, LLB Conjoint Senior Clinical Lecturer, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Newcastle University; Senior Consultant Surgeon, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, John Hunter, Warners Bay Private Hospitals, Australia

S Valentine Fernandes, MBBS, MCPS, FRCSEd, FRACS, FACS, LLB is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Surgeons

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Stephen G Batuello, MD Consulting Staff, Colorado ENT Specialists

Stephen G Batuello, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Medical Association, Colorado Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA Professor of Otolaryngology, Dentistry, and Engineering, University of Colorado School of Medicine

Arlen D Meyers, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, American Head and Neck Society

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Cerescan;RxRevu;SymbiaAllergySolutions<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Symbia<br/>Received from Allergy Solutions, Inc for board membership; Received honoraria from RxRevu for chief medical editor; Received salary from Medvoy for founder and president; Received consulting fee from Corvectra for senior medical advisor; Received ownership interest from Cerescan for consulting; Received consulting fee from Essiahealth for advisor; Received consulting fee from Carespan for advisor; Received consulting fee from Covidien for consulting.

Additional Contributors

B Viswanatha, DO, MBBS, PhD, MS, FACS Professor of Otolaryngology (ENT), Sri Venkateshwara ENT Institute, Victoria Hospital, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, India

B Viswanatha, DO, MBBS, PhD, MS, FACS is a member of the following medical societies: Indian Medical Association, Indian Society of Otology, Association of Otolaryngologists of India

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Marcet MM, Kuk AK, Phelps PO. Evidence-based review of surgical practices in endoscopic endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy for primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction and other new indications. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2014 Sep. 25(5):443-8. [Medline].

  2. Jung SK, Kim YC, Cho WK, Paik JS, Yang SW. Surgical outcomes of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: analysis of 1083 consecutive cases. Can J Ophthalmol. 2015 Dec. 50 (6):466-70. [Medline].

  3. Kiroglu AF, Cankaya H, Yuca K, Kiris M. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with a T-type ventilation tube. J Otolaryngol. 2007 Jun. 36(3):164-7. [Medline].

  4. Longari F, Dehgani Mobaraki P, Ricci AL, Lapenna R, Cagini C, Ricci G. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy with and without silicone intubation: 4 years retrospective study. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016 Jan 5. [Medline].

  5. Sprekelsen MB, Barberan MT. Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: surgical technique and results. Laryngoscope. 1996 Feb. 106(2 Pt 1):187-9. [Medline].

  6. Anari S, Ainsworth G, Robson AK. Cost-efficiency of endoscopic and external dacryocystorhinostomy. J Laryngol Otol. 2007 Jul 19. 1-4. [Medline].

  7. Pearlman SJ, Michalos P, Leib ML, Moazed KT. Translacrimal transnasal laser-assisted dacryocystorhinostomy. Laryngoscope. 1997 Oct. 107(10):1362-5. [Medline].

  8. Leong SC, Macewen CJ, White PS. A systematic review of outcomes after dacryocystorhinostomy in adults. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2010 Jan-Feb. 24(1):81-90. [Medline].

  9. Orhan M, Saylam CY, Midilli R. Intranasal localization of the lacrimal sac. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Aug. 135(8):764-70. [Medline].

 
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Schematic endoscopic view of the area of lacrimal sac.
Schematic coronal section through the lacrimal drainage system.
Schematic axial section at the level of the lacrimal sac.
 
 
 
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