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Agammaglobulinemia Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Terry W Chin, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 06, 2014
 
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine; Associate Director, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Attending Staff Physician, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy, and Immunology, Memorial Miller Children's Hospital

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Thoracic Society, California Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, California Thoracic Society, Clinical Immunology Society, Los Angeles Pediatric Society, Western Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD Faculty, Division of Allergy/Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Peter's University Hospital

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Society for Mucosal Immunology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

John Wilson Georgitis, MD Consulting Staff, Lafayette Allergy Services

John Wilson Georgitis, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Chest Physicians, American Lung Association, American Medical Writers Association, and American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Early stages of B-cell differentiation can be identified by the status of the immunoglobulin genes and by the cell surface markers CD34, CD19, and surface immunoglobulin (sIg). From: Conley ME. Genes required for B cell development. J Clin Invest. 2003;112: 1636-8. Reproduced with permission of American Society for Clinical Investigation via Copyright Clearance Center.
Table 1. Immune Globulin, Intravenous[75, 76, 77, 78]
Brand(Manufacturer)Manufacturing ProcesspHAdditives (IVIG products containing sucrose are more often associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, and osmotic nephrosis, particularly with preexisting risk factors [eg, history of renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, age >65 y, dehydration, sepsis, paraproteinemia, nephrotoxic drugs].) Parenteral Form and Final ConcentrationsIgA Content (mcg/mL)
Carimune NF



(ZLB Behring)



Kistler-Nitschmann fractionation; pH 4 incubation, nanofiltration6.4-6.86% solution: 10% sucrose, < 20 mg NaCl/g proteinLyophilized powder 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%Trace
Flebogamma



(Grifols USA)



Cohn-Oncley fractionation, PEG precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, pasteurization5.1-6Sucrose free, contains 5% D-sorbitolLiquid 5%< 50
Gammagard Liquid 10%



(Baxter Bioscience)



Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation, cation and anion exchange chromatography, solvent detergent treated, nanofiltration, low pH incubation 4.6-5.10.25M glycineReady-for-use liquid 10%37
Gammar-P IV



(ZLB Behring)



Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III; ultrafiltration; pasteurization6.4-7.25% solution: 5% sucrose, 3% albumin, 0.5% NaClLyophilized powder 5%< 20
Gamunex



(Talecris Biotherapeutics)



Cohn-Oncley fractionation, caprylate-chromatography purification, cloth and depth filtration, low pH incubation4-4.5Contains no sugar, contains glycineLiquid 10%46
Gammaplex



(Bio Products)



Solvent/detergent treatment targeted to enveloped viruses; virus filtration using Pall Ultipor to remove small viruses including nonenveloped viruses; low pH incubation 4.8-5.1Contains sorbitol (40 mg/mL); do not administer if fructose intolerantReady-for-use solution 5%< 10
Iveegam EN



(Baxter Bioscience)



Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III; ultrafiltration; pasteurization6.4-7.25% solution: 5% glucose, 0.3% NaClLyophilized powder 5%< 10
Polygam S/D



Gammagard S/D



(Baxter Bioscience for the American Red Cross)



Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation, followed by ultracentrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography; solvent detergent treated 6.4-7.25% solution: 0.3% albumin, 2.25% glycine, 2% glucoseLyophilized powder 5%, 10%< 1.6 (5% solution)
Octagam



(Octapharma USA)



9/24/10: Withdrawn from market because of unexplained reports of thromboembolic events



Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III; ultrafiltration; low pH incubation; S/D treatment pasteurization5.1-610% maltoseLiquid 5%200
Panglobulin



(Swiss Red Cross for the American Red Cross)



Kistler-Nitschmann fractionation; pH 4 incubation, trace pepsin, nanofiltration6.6Per gram of IgG: 1.67 g sucrose, < 20 mg NaClLyophilized powder 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%720
Privigen



(CSL Behring)



pH 4 incubation; octanoic acid fractionation, depth filtration, and virus filtration4.6-510% solution; Preservative-free, sucrose-free, and maltose-freeReady-to-use solution 10%< 25
Table 2. Immune Globulin, Subcutaneous
Brand(Manufacturer)Manufacturing ProcesspHAdditivesParenteral Form and Final ConcentrationsIgA Content mcg/mL
Vivaglobin



(ZLB Behring)



Cold ethanol fractionation, pasteurization6.4-7.22.25% glycine, 0.3% NaClLiquid 16% (160 mg/mL)< 50 mcg/mL
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