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B-Cell and T-Cell Combined Disorders Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Terry W Chin, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD  more...
 
Updated: Aug 26, 2014
 
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine; Associate Director, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Attending Staff Physician, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy, and Immunology, Memorial Miller Children's Hospital

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Thoracic Society, California Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, California Thoracic Society, Clinical Immunology Society, Los Angeles Pediatric Society, Western Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Noufa Alonazi, MD, MBBS Allergy and Immunology Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Pediatrics, Loma Linda University and Medical Center

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD Faculty, Division of Allergy/Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Peter's University Hospital

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Society for Mucosal Immunology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

John Wilson Georgitis, MD Consulting Staff, Lafayette Allergy Services

John Wilson Georgitis, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Chest Physicians, American Lung Association, American Medical Writers Association, and American Thoracic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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Telangiectasia.
Radiograph shows an 8-month-old boy who required ventilatory support for bilateral pneumonia and who received intravenous antibiotics. The patient recovered and returned home.
Chest radiograph in an 8-month-old boy 2 weeks after he was treated for bilateral pneumonia. The patient returned to the emergency department with a fever and breathing problems.
Chest radiograph in a 9-month-old boy. The patient developed breathing problems 1 month after recovering from a second hospitalization for pneumonia. By this time, serum immunoglobulin levels from the second hospitalization were in the patient's record and showed an immunoglobulin G level of 156 mg/dL and undetectable immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M levels. Subsequent bronchoscopy showed the presence of Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus.
Telangiectasia of conjunctivae.
A 5-year-old boy with thrush.
Table. Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy[17, 18, 19, 20]
Brand(Manufacturer)Manufacturing ProcesspHAdditives (IVIG products containing sucrose are more often associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, and osmotic nephrosis, particularly with preexisting risk factors [eg, history of renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, age >65 y, dehydration, sepsis, paraproteinemia, nephrotoxic drugs].) Parenteral Form and Final ConcentrationsIgA Content mcg/mL
Carimune NF



(ZLB Behring)



Kistler-Nitschmann fractionation, pH 4, nanofiltration6.4-6.86% solution: 10% sucrose, < 20 mg NaCl/g proteinLyophilized powder 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%Trace
Flebogamma



(Grifols USA)



Cohn-Oncley fractionation, PEG precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, pasteurization5.1-6Sucrose free, contains 5% D-sorbitolLiquid 5%< 50
Gammagard Liquid 10%



(Baxter Bioscience)



Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation, cation and anion exchange chromatography, solvent detergent treated, nanofiltration, low pH incubation 4.6-5.10.25 M glycineReady-for-use liquid 10%37
Gammar-P IV



(ZLB Behring)



Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III, ultrafiltration, pasteurization6.4-7.25% solution: 5% sucrose, 3% albumin, 0.5% NaClLyophilized powder 5%< 20
Gamunex



(Talecris Biotherapeutics)



Cohn-Oncley fractionation, caprylate-chromatography purification, cloth and depth filtration, low pH incubation4-4.5Contains no sugar, contains glycineLiquid 10%46
Gammaplex



(Bio Products)



Solvent/detergent treatment targeted to enveloped viruses; virus filtration using Pall Ultipor to remove small viruses including nonenveloped viruses; low pH incubation 4.8-5.1Contains sorbitol (40 mg/mL); do not administer if fructose intolerantReady-for-use solution 5%< 10
Iveegam EN



(Baxter Bioscience)



Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III, ultrafiltration, pasteurization6.4-7.25% solution: 5% glucose, 0.3% NaClLyophilized powder 5%< 10
Polygam S/D



Gammagard S/D



(Baxter Bioscience for the American Red Cross)



Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation, followed by ultra centrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography, solvent detergent treated 6.4-7.25% solution: 0.3% albumin, 2.25% glycine, 2% glucoseLyophilized powder 5%, 10%< 1.6 (5% solution)
Octagam



(Octapharma USA)



9/24/10: Withdrawn from market because of unexplained reports of thromboembolic events



Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III, ultrafiltration, low pH incubation, S/D treatment pasteurization5.1-610% maltoseLiquid 5%200
Panglobulin



(Swiss Red Cross for the American Red Cross)



Kistler-Nitschmann fractionation, pH 4, trace pepsin, nanofiltration6.6Per gram of IgG: 1.67 g sucrose, < 20 mg NaClLyophilized powder 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%720
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