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T-Cell Disorders Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD  more...
Updated: Jan 12, 2016

Diagnostic Considerations

Partial defects in T-cell function have been ascertained in numerous genetic disorders, particularly Down syndrome and Turner syndrome. These abnormalities help in understanding the clinical infections in these patients, but they play a minor role in the overall problems.

Differential Diagnoses

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Robert Y Lin, MD Professor, Department of Medicine, New York Medical College; Chief, Allergy and Immunology, and Director of Utilization Review, Department Medicine, New York Downtown Hospital

Robert Y Lin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, New York Allergy & Asthma Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

David J Valacer, MD 

David J Valacer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Thoracic Society, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD Faculty, Division of Allergy/Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Peter's University Hospital

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Society for Mucosal Immunology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine; Associate Director, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Attending Staff Physician, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy, and Immunology, Memorial Miller Children's Hospital

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Thoracic Society, California Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, California Thoracic Society, Clinical Immunology Society, Los Angeles Pediatric Society, Western Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author Ann O'Neill Shigeoka, MD, to the development and writing of this article.

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This patient was diagnosed with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) when she presented at age 6 years. The family was concerned about the increased frequency of sinusitis during the past winter, and she was noted to have poor balance. Findings in her eyes had been explained as conjunctivitis since age 4 years.
A prominent site for telangiectasia in classic ataxia telangiectasia is the pinna.
Malformation of the pinna
Giant lysosomes.
Table. Immune Globulin, Intravenous[25, 26, 27, 28]
Brand(Manufacturer)Manufacturing ProcesspHAdditives (IVIG products containing sucrose are more often associated with renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, and osmotic nephrosis, particularly with preexisting risk factors [eg, history of renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, age >65 y, dehydration, sepsis, paraproteinemia, nephrotoxic drugs].) Parenteral Form and Final ConcentrationsIgA Content mcg/mL
Carimune NF

(CSL Behring)

Kistler-Nitschmann fractionation; pH 4 nanofiltration6.4-6.86% solution: 10% sucrose, < 20 mg NaCl/g proteinLyophilized powder 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%720

(Grifols USA)

Cohn-Oncley fractionation, PEG precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, pasteurization5.1-6Sucrose free, contains 5% D-sorbitolLiquid 5%< 50
Gammagard Liquid 10%

(Baxter Bioscience)

Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation, cation and anion exchange chromatography, solvent detergent treated, nanofiltration, low pH incubation4.6-5.10.25M glycineReady-for-use liquid 10%37

(Talecris Biotherapeutics)

Cohn-Oncley fractionation, caprylate-chromatography purification, cloth and depth filtration, low pH incubation4-4.5Does not contain carbohydrate stabilizers (eg, sucrose, maltose), contains glycineLiquid 10%46
Iveegam EN

(Baxter Bioscience)

Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III; ultrafiltration; pasteurization6.4-7.25% solution: 5% glucose, 0.3% NaClLyophilized powder 5%< 10
Polygam S/D

Gammagard S/D

(Baxter Bioscience for the American Red Cross)

Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation, followed by ultracentrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography; solvent detergent treated6.4-7.25% solution: 0.3% albumin, 2.25% glycine, 2% glucoseLyophilized powder 5%, 10%< 1.6 (5% solution)

(Octapharma USA)

9/24/10: Withdrawn from market because of unexplained reports of thromboembolic events

Cohn-Oncley fraction II/III; ultrafiltration; low pH incubation; S/D treatment pasteurization5.1-610% maltoseLiquid 5%200

(Swiss Red Cross for the American Red Cross)

Kistler-Nitschmann fractionation; pH 4 incubation; trace pepsin; nanofiltration6.6Per gram of IgG: 1.67 g sucrose, < 20 mg NaClLyophilized powder 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%720
Privigen Liquid 10%

(CSL Behring)

Cold ethanol fractionation, octanoic acid fractionation, and anion exchange chromatography; pH 4 incubation and depth filtration4.6-5L-proline (~250 mmol/L) as stabilizer; trace sodium; does not contain carbohydrate stabilizers (eg, sucrose, maltose)Ready-for use liquid 10%< 25
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