Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Pediatric Thymoma

  • Author: Richard A Bickel, MD; Chief Editor: Harumi Jyonouchi, MD  more...
 
Updated: Mar 21, 2016
 

Background

Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells. This definition excludes other tumors that may affect the thymus, such as lymphoma and germ cell tumors. Although rare, thymoma is the most common tumor of the anterior superior mediastinum. The term lymphoepithelioma has been used in cases in which the thymoma contains a large number of lymphoid cells.[1]

Normal thymic epithelium tissue arises from the third branchial cleft and the third and fourth branchial pouches. Dendritic cells and macrophages found in large quantities at the corticomedullary junction arise from mesodermal tissues (bone marrow). The epithelial cells and these other stromal tissues of the thymus influence the selection and maturation of the T lymphocytes. Dysregulation of this system in thymoma is believed to be a cause of accompanying paraneoplastic syndromes.

In the normal thymus, bone marrow–derived precursor cells destined to become thymocytes (or T lymphocytes) enter the thymus at the corticomedullary junction and differentiate as they pass through the thymus. These cells can be characterized in their developmental progression by changes in expression of 3 cell surface markers: CD4, CD8, and the T-cell receptor (TCR)–CD3 complex.

Initially, the cells undergo positive selection; thus, those cells that fail to receive a signal (ie, do not recognize self) die by apoptosis or become inactive. The cells that pass through the corticomedullary junction undergo negative selection; the thymocytes expressing TCRs that have an excessively high affinity for self-proteins are eliminated. These cells are believed to recognize self too strongly and to have autoimmune potential. From the corticomedullary junction, the cells enter the medulla or circulate in the periphery to other lymphoid structures (ie, lymph nodes). The lymphocytes' selection process and developmental progression are influenced by direct contact between the TCR-CD3 complex on the thymocyte and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)–antigen complex on thymic epithelial cells, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes. The cytokines involved in thymocyte development and selection include interleukin (IL)–1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-7.[2, 3]

Next

Pathophysiology

Patients with thymoma may experience dysregulation of the lymphocyte negative and positive selection process leading to abnormal proliferation, autoimmunity, and/or immunodeficiency. Autoimmunity also may be caused by cross-immunity of antigens in other tissues with thymoma-associated antigens.

Thymomas are usually encapsulated, locally spreading tumors. More than one system of classifying thymoma has been established (see Histologic Findings, Staging). Seventy percent of thymomas are associated with paraneoplastic syndromes such as myasthenia gravis (MG), red cell aplasia, pemphigus, and immunoglobulin (Ig) deficiency.

Myasthenia gravis

As many as 50% of patients with thymoma have MG, and approximately 15% of patients with MG have thymoma.[4] MG is caused by autoantibodies to postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (anti-AChRs) at the neuromuscular junction, causing weakness of skeletal muscles. Some patients with thymoma-associated MG have an inflammatory myopathy of striated and cardiac muscles. Cardiac myositis may cause heart failure, cardiac arrhythmia, and sudden death.[5, 6]

Neuromyotonia can also be associated with thymoma. Patients with neuromyotonia have hyperactivity of peripheral motor nerves, which causes muscle cramps, muscle twitching, and, sometimes, muscle hypertrophy. Muscle biopsy samples demonstrate patchy inflammatory infiltrates. Antibodies against a presynaptic structure, the voltage-gated potassium channels of peripheral nerves, have been detected in patients with neuromyotonia with or without thymoma. These channels regulate nerve excitability. Neuromyotonia and antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channels have also been found in patients with MG. Twenty percent of patients with MG and neuromyotonia have been demonstrated to have thymoma.[5, 7, 8]

In addition to these autoantibodies, patients with thymoma-associated MG produce autoantibodies to various neuromuscular antigens, including antibodies to the skeletal muscle calcium release channel (ryanodine receptor of sarcoplasmic reticulum) and antibodies to cytoplasmic filamentous proteins (particularly titin) or neurofilaments. Myoid (muscle-like) thymic epithelial cells express epitopes shared by the target antigens for some of these antibodies. Autoreactive T lymphocytes are assumed to be generated in the thymic tumor and, subsequently, stimulate antibody production against various muscle antigens. MG with myositis tends to be severe, with poor response to resection of the thymoma.[5, 7, 6]

Apart from MG, one study reported that approximately 15% of thymomas are associated with other paraneoplastic diseases, and the onset of these diseases can herald the presence of a treatable tumor.[9] These paraneoplastic diseases included neurologic paraneoplastic diseases (eg, limbic encephalitis, neuromyotonia, polymyositis, subacute hearing loss, psychosis, sleep disorders) as well as non-neurologic paraneoplastic diseases, with predominantly hematologic and cutaneous disorders.[9]

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by reduced quantal release of acetylcholine from the motor nerve terminal. The patient with LEMS develops muscle weakness, myalgias, and fatigability. LEMS predominantly involves the proximal muscles of the legs. Unlike MG, LEMS spares the extraocular muscles. The muscle strength is reduced at rest and transiently improves with repetitive muscle action. LEMS is associated with an antibody to the presynaptic calcium channel. Underlying cancer is found in 50-60% of persons with LEMS.[10] In individuals with LEMS, the most commonly reported tumor is small cell lung cancer; however, thymoma has also been one of the associated neoplasms.[5, 7]

Subacute sensory neuronopathy

Subacute sensory neuronopathy is a rare disorder associated with small cell lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies, including thymoma and esophageal carcinoma. The patient develops painful paresthesias in the lower extremities that may ascend to involve the trunk and face. Marked sensory loss can lead to truncal ataxia, although motor strength is normal. The characteristic destruction of the dorsal root ganglia is believed to be antibody mediated.[5]

Red cell aplasia

Of patients with thymoma, 5% develop pure red cell aplasia; 10-50% of patients with red blood cell aplasia have thymoma. Thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia, and autoantibody formation are sometimes observed. In two thirds of individuals with red cell aplasia, morphologically, the thymoma is the spindle cell variety. Approximately 30% of patients with the disorder resume normal hematopoiesis after thymectomy.[11, 12, 13, 14]

Immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with thymoma, Good syndrome, and immunodeficiency with thymoma are characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia or agammaglobulinemia in association with thymoma. Thymoma is associated with approximately 10% of hypogammaglobulinemia cases, and combined humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency is often noted.[15] Immunodeficiency has been demonstrated to occur years after thymoma resection.[5, 13]

Good described Good syndrome in 1954. The syndrome usually occurs in individuals aged 40-70 years and only rarely occurs in children. However, an 8-year-old boy reportedly developed fatal chickenpox 4 months after resection of a benign thymoma.[16, 17] The immunodeficiency in Good syndrome affects both T and B lymphocytes, typically manifested as low B-cell numbers and inverted CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio.[18] The thymic tumors are usually of the spindle cell type and are benign. Good syndrome is associated with recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, chronic diarrhea of unclear etiology, and opportunistic infections. Autoimmune disorders are also associated with these acquired immunodeficiencies.

Previous
Next

Epidemiology

Frequency

United States

Primary tumors and cysts of the mediastinum are uncommon and represent approximately 3% of tumors of the chest. Primary anterior mediastinal neoplasms account for 50% of all mediastinal masses, and 45% of anterior mediastinal masses are thymomas.[4] Other anterior mediastinal malignancies include lymphoma (20%), parathyroid or thyroid tumors (15%), germ cell neoplasms (15%), and neurogenic or mesenchymal tumors (5% each).[19]

Sex

Men and women are equally affected by thymoma.

Age

Most patients are older than 40 years. Thymomas are rare in children and adolescents; however, thymomas in this age group are highly aggressive.[15] A Japanese institutional review of 806 patients (676 adults and 130 children) showed that thymomas accounted for approximately 4% of pediatric mediastinal tumors, compared with 36% of adult mediastinal tumors. (Neurogenic tumors, germ cell tumors, lymphomas, and congenital cysts comprised most pediatric mediastinal tumors.[20] )

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Richard A Bickel, MD Chief, Allergy Clinic, Moncrief Army Community Hospital

Richard A Bickel, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Cecilia P Mikita, MD, MPH Associate Program Director, Allergy-Immunology Fellowship, Associate Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences; Staff Allergist/Immunologist, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

Cecilia P Mikita, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

David J Valacer, MD 

David J Valacer, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Thoracic Society, New York Academy of Sciences

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD Faculty, Division of Allergy/Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Saint Peter's University Hospital

Harumi Jyonouchi, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Medical Association, Clinical Immunology Society, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Society for Mucosal Immunology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD Associate Clinical Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine; Associate Director, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Attending Staff Physician, Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Allergy, and Immunology, Memorial Miller Children's Hospital

Terry W Chin, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology, American Association of Immunologists, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American College of Chest Physicians, American Federation for Clinical Research, American Thoracic Society, California Society of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, California Thoracic Society, Clinical Immunology Society, Los Angeles Pediatric Society, Western Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author Marion Johnson, MD, to the development and writing of this article.

References
  1. Stites DP. Diseases of the thymus. Wyngaarden J, Smith LH, eds. Cecil Textbook of Medicine. WB Saunders Co; 1988.

  2. Rich RR. Clinical Immunology, Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. Mosby; 1996.

  3. Roitt IM, Brostoff J, Male DK. Immunology. 5th ed. Mosby; 1998.

  4. Temes R, Chavez T, Mapel D, et al. Primary mediastinal malignancies: findings in 219 patients. West J Med. 1999 Mar. 170(3):161-6. [Medline].

  5. Agarwala SS. Paraneoplastic syndromes. Med Clin North Am. 1996 Jan. 80(1):173-84. [Medline].

  6. Mygland A, Vincent A, Newsom-Davis J, et al. Autoantibodies in thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis with myositis or neuromyotonia. Arch Neurol. 2000 Apr. 57(4):527-31. [Medline].

  7. Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill; 1998.

  8. Hart IK. Acquired neuromyotonia: a new autoantibody-mediated neuronal potassium channelopathy. Am J Med Sci. 2000 Apr. 319(4):209-16. [Medline].

  9. Evoli A, Minicuci GM, Vitaliani R, et al. Paraneoplastic diseases associated with thymoma. J Neurol. 2007 Jun. 254(6):756-62. [Medline].

  10. Takamori M, Komai K, Iwasa K. Antibodies to calcium channel and synaptotagmin in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Am J Med Sci. 2000 Apr. 319(4):204-8. [Medline].

  11. Ammann AJ, Stiehm ER, Roberts RL. Antibody (B-cell) immunodeficiency disorders. Stites DP, Terr A, eds. Medical Immunology. Appleton & Lange; 1997.

  12. Casadevall N, Dupuy E, Molho-Sabatier P, et al. Autoantibodies against erythropoietin in a patient with pure red-cell aplasia. N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 7. 334(10):630-3. [Medline].

  13. Frank K, Austin M. Samter’s Immunologic Diseases. Little Brown & Co; 1995.

  14. Gay CM, William WN Jr, Wang SA, Oo TH. Thymoma complicated by acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia and pure red cell aplasia. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2014 Nov. 12(11):1505-9. [Medline].

  15. Strollo DC, Rosado de Christenson ML, Jett JR. Primary mediastinal tumors. Part 1: tumors of the anterior mediastinum. Chest. 1997 Aug. 112(2):511-22. [Medline].

  16. Stiehm ER. Immunologic disorders in infants and children. Ochs HD, Winkelstein J, eds. Disorders of the B-Cell System. 4th ed. 1996. 320.

  17. Watts RG, Kelly DR. Fatal varicella infection in a child associated with thymoma and immunodeficiency (Good's syndrome). Med Pediatr Oncol. 1990. 18(3):246-51. [Medline].

  18. Middleton E, Reed CE, Ellis EF, et al, eds. Allergy: Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Mosby; 1998.

  19. Loehrer PJ Sr. Current approaches to the treatment of thymoma. Ann Med. 1999 Oct. 31 Suppl 2:73-9. [Medline].

  20. Takeda S, Miyoshi S, Akashi A. Clinical spectrum of primary mediastinal tumors: a comparison of adult and pediatric populations at a single Japanese institution. J Surg Oncol. 2003 May. 83(1):24-30. [Medline].

  21. Takanami I, Takeuchi K, Naruke M. Noninvasive large thymoma with a natural history of twenty-one years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999 Dec. 118(6):1134-5. [Medline].

  22. Bonilla FA, Bernstein IL, Khan DA, et al. Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2005 May. 94(5 Suppl 1):S1-63. [Medline].

  23. Kelleher P, Misbah SA. What is Good's syndrome? Immunological abnormalities in patients with thymoma. J Clin Pathol. 2003 Jan. 56(1):12-6. [Medline].

  24. Camera L, Brunetti A, Romano M, et al. Morphological imaging of thymic disorders. Ann Med. 1999 Oct. 31 Suppl 2:57-62. [Medline].

  25. Lastoria S, Palmieri G, Muto P, Lombardi G. Functional imaging of thymic disorders. Ann Med. 1999 Oct. 31 Suppl 2:63-9. [Medline].

  26. Panitch HS. Neurologic diseases. Stites DP, Terr AI, Parslow TG, eds. Medical Immunology. Appleton & Lange; 1997.

  27. Muller-Hermelink HK, Marx A. Pathological aspects of malignant and benign thymic disorders. Ann Med. 1999 Oct. 31 Suppl 2:5-14. [Medline].

  28. Bott-Kothari T, Aron BS, Bejarano P. Malignant thymoma with metastases to the gastrointestinal tract and ovary: a case report and literature review. Am J Clin Oncol. 2000 Apr. 23(2):140-2. [Medline].

  29. Das A, Pandit S, Choudhury S, Das SK, Basuthakur S. Superior vena caval syndrome and ipsilateral pleural effusion: A rare presentation of anterior mediastinal thymoma. Lung India. 2014 Oct. 31(4):383-6. [Medline].

  30. Kim DJ, Yang WI, Choi SS. Prognostic and clinical relevance of the World Health Organization schema for the classification of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 108 patients and literature review. Chest. 2005 Mar. 127(3):755-61. [Medline].

  31. [Guideline] NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Thymomas and Thymic Carcinomas. V.2.2012. 11/9/2011. [Full Text].

  32. Okumura M, Shiono H, Inoue M, et al. Outcome of surgical treatment for recurrent thymic epithelial tumors with reference to world health organization histologic classification system. J Surg Oncol. 2007 Jan 1. 95(1):40-4. [Medline].

  33. Werneck LC, Cunha FM, Scola RH. Myasthenia gravis: a retrospective study comparing thymectomy to conservative treatment. Acta Neurol Scand. 2000 Jan. 101(1):41-6. [Medline].

  34. Raschal S, Siegel JN, Huml J, Richmond GW. Hypogammaglobulinemia and anemia 18 years after thymoma resection. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997 Dec. 100(6 Pt 1):846-8. [Medline].

  35. Detterbeck FC, Zeeshan A. Thymoma: current diagnosis and treatment. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013. 126(11):2186-91. [Medline].

  36. Davenport E, Malthaner RA. The role of surgery in the management of thymoma: a systematic review. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008 Aug. 86(2):673-84. [Medline].

  37. Fornasiero A, Daniele O, Ghiotto C, et al. Chemotherapy of invasive thymoma. J Clin Oncol. 1990 Aug. 8(8):1419-23. [Medline].

  38. Macchiarini P, Chella A, Ducci F, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and postoperative radiation therapy for invasive thymoma. Cancer. 1991 Aug 15. 68(4):706-13. [Medline].

  39. Loehrer PJ Sr, Chen M, Kim K, et al. Cisplatin, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide plus thoracic radiation therapy for limited-stage unresectable thymoma: an intergroup trial. J Clin Oncol. 1997 Sep. 15(9):3093-9. [Medline].

  40. Venuta F, Rendina EA, Pescarmona EO, et al. Multimodality treatment of thymoma: a prospective study. Ann Thorac Surg. 1997 Dec. 64(6):1585-91; discussion 1591-2. [Medline].

  41. Kunitoh H, Tamura T, Shibata T, Takeda K, Katakami N, Nakagawa K, et al. A phase II trial of dose-dense chemotherapy, followed by surgical resection and/or thoracic radiotherapy, in locally advanced thymoma: report of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 9606). Br J Cancer. June 29, 2010. 103(1):6-11. [Medline].

  42. Palmieri G, Lastoria S, Montella L, et al. Role of somatostatin analogue-based therapy in unresponsive malignant thymomas. Ann Med. 1999 Oct. 31 Suppl 2:80-5. [Medline].

  43. Verley JM, Hollmann KH. Thymoma. A comparative study of clinical stages, histologic features, and survival in 200 cases. Cancer. 1985 Mar 1. 55(5):1074-86. [Medline].

  44. Pollack A, Komaki R, Cox JD. Thymoma: treatment and prognosis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1992. 23(5):1037-43. [Medline].

  45. Wright CD, Wain JC, Wong DR. Predictors of recurrence in thymic tumors: importance of invasion, World Health Organization histology, and size. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Nov. 130(5):1413-21. [Medline].

  46. Kondo K, Monden Y. Thymoma and myasthenia gravis: a clinical study of 1,089 patients from Japan. Ann Thorac Surg. 2005 Jan. 79(1):219-24. [Medline].

  47. Park MS, Chung KY, Kim KD. Prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors according to the new World Health Organization histologic classification. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Sep. 78(3):992-7; discussion 997-8. [Medline].

  48. Rena O, Papalia E, Maggi G. World Health Organization histologic classification: an independent prognostic factor in resected thymomas. Lung Cancer. 2005 Oct. 50(1):59-66. [Medline].

  49. Huang J, Rizk NP, Travis WD, et al. Feasibility of multimodality therapy including extended resections in stage IVA thymoma. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Dec. 134(6):1477-83; discussion 1483-4. [Medline].

  50. Curran WJ Jr, Kornstein MJ, Brooks JJ, Turrisi AT 3rd. Invasive thymoma: the role of mediastinal irradiation following complete or incomplete surgical resection. J Clin Oncol. 1988 Nov. 6(11):1722-7. [Medline].

  51. Goldman L, Cecil RL, Bennett JC, eds. Cecil Textbook of Internal Medicine. WB Saunders Co; 2000.

  52. Graeber GM, Tamim W. Current status of the diagnosis and treatment of thymoma. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000 Oct. 12(4):268-77. [Medline].

  53. Inoue M, Okumura M, Miyoshi S, et al. Impaired expression of MHC class II molecules in response to interferon- gamma (IFN-gamma) on human thymoma neoplastic epithelial cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 1999 Jul. 117(1):1-7. [Medline].

  54. Monden Y, Nakahara K, Iioka S, et al. Recurrence of thymoma: clinicopathological features, therapy, and prognosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985 Feb. 39(2):165-9. [Medline].

  55. Spigland N, Di Lorenzo M, Youssef S, et al. Malignant thymoma in children: a 20-year review. J Pediatr Surg. 1990 Nov. 25(11):1143-6. [Medline].

  56. Stephan JL, Galambrun C, Boucheron S, et al. Epstein-Barr virus--positive undifferentiated thymic carcinoma in a 12- year-old white girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 Mar-Apr. 22(2):162-6. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Table 1. Comparison of the Different Classifications of Thymic Epithelial Tumors [27]
Clinicopathologic Classification WHO Type Terminology of the Histogenetic Classification for the Histologic Subtypes of Thymic Epithelial Tumors
Benign thymoma A



AB



Medullary thymoma



Mixed thymoma



Malignant thymomas,



Category I



B1



B2



B3



Predominantly cortical thymoma



Cortical thymoma



Well-differentiated thymic carcinoma



Malignant thymomas,



Category II



C Epidermoid keratinizing (squamous cell) carcinoma



Epidermoid nonkeratinizing carcinoma



Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma



Sarcomatoid carcinoma (carcinosarcoma)



Clear cell carcinoma



Mucoepidermoid carcinoma



Undifferentiated carcinoma



Table. Macchiarini et al (1991) [38]
Cisplatin 75 mg/m2 on day 1 3 courses repeated q3wk
Epirubicin 100 mg/m2 on day 1
Etoposide 120 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5
Surgery and radiation



in patients with



complete or partial



response to chemotherapy



4500 cGy if complete



resection



6000 cGy if incomplete



resection



 
Table. Loehrer et al (1997) [39]
Cisplatin 50 mg/m2 2-4 cycles q3wk
Doxorubicin 50 mg/m2
Cyclophosphamide 500 mg/m2
Followed by radiation 54 Gy to the primary tumor and lymph nodes
Table. Venuta et al (1997) [40]
Cisplatin 75-100 mg/m2 on day 1 Repeated q3wk 3 times before surgery and 2 or 3 times after surgery
Epirubicin hydrochloride 100 mg/m2 on day 1
Etoposide 120 mg/m2 on days 1, 3, and 5
Postoperative radiation in patients with radical resection 30 Gy Delivered in 3 wk with 5 fractions per wk
Postoperative radiation in



patients with incomplete resection



50 Gy Delivered in 5 wk with 5 fractions per wk
Table. Palmieri et al (1999) [42]
Octreotide 1.5 mg/d SC In patients shown to have



somatostatin receptors



Lanreotide 30 mg/d SC q14d Switch to this longer-acting



somatostatin analogue or depot form of octreotide if short-acting octreotide



is well tolerated



Prednisone 0.6 mg/kg/d PO



for 3 mo, then



decreasing to 0.2 mg/kg



 
Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.