Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Pediatric Atrial Septal Defects Medication

  • Author: Michael R Carr, MD; Chief Editor: P Syamasundar Rao, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 17, 2014
 
 

Medication Summary

Medication is not currently a component of care for this condition. See Treatment.

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Michael R Carr, MD Pediatric Cardiologist, Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine

Michael R Carr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Brent R King, MD, MMM Clive, Nancy, and Pierce Runnells Distinguished Professor of Emergency Medicine, Professor of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston; Chair, Department of Emergency Medicine, Chief of Emergency Services, Memorial Hermann Hospital and LBJ Hospital

Brent R King, MD, MMM is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Association for Physician Leadership, Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Alvin J Chin, MD Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Alvin J Chin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Developmental Biology, American Heart Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

P Syamasundar Rao, MD Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emeritus Chief of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital

P Syamasundar Rao, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Pediatric Society, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Paul M Seib, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; Medical Director, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Co-Medical Director, Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit, Arkansas Children's Hospital

Paul M Seib, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Arkansas Medical Society, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Van Praagh R, Corsini I. Cor triatriatum: pathologic anatomy and a consideration of morphogenesis based on 13 postmortem cases and a study of normal development of the pulmonary vein and atrial septum in 83 human embryos. Am Heart J. 1969 Sep. 78(3):379-405. [Medline].

  2. Weinberg PM, Chin AJ, Murphy JD, et al. Postmortem echocardiography and tomographic anatomy of hypoplastic left heart syndrome after palliative surgery. Am J Cardiol. 1986 Dec 1. 58(13):1228-32. [Medline].

  3. Pierpont ME, Basson CT, Benson DW Jr, Gelb BD, Giglia TM, Goldmuntz E, et al. Genetic basis for congenital heart defects: current knowledge: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Congenital Cardiac Defects Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2007 Jun 12. 115(23):3015-38. [Medline].

  4. [Guideline] Jenkins KJ, Correa A, Feinstein JA, et al. Noninherited risk factors and congenital cardiovascular defects: current knowledge: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation. 2007 Jun 12. 115(23):2995-3014. [Medline].

  5. Basson CT, Bachinsky DR, Lin RC, et al. Mutations in human TBX5 [corrected] cause limb and cardiac malformation in Holt-Oram syndrome. Nat Genet. 1997 Jan. 15(1):30-5. [Medline].

  6. Posch MG, Perrot A, Berger F, Ozcelik C. Molecular genetics of congenital atrial septal defects. Clin Res Cardiol. 2010 Mar. 99(3):137-47. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Reamon-Buettner SM, Borlak J. NKX2-5: an update on this hypermutable homeodomain protein and its role in human congenital heart disease (CHD). Hum Mutat. 2010 Nov. 31(11):1185-94. [Medline].

  8. Hirayama-Yamada K, Kamisago M, Akimoto K, et al. Phenotypes with GATA4 or NKX2.5 mutations in familial atrial septal defect. Am J Med Genet A. 2005. 135(1):47-52. [Medline].

  9. Posch MG, Waldmuller S, Müller M, Scheffold T, Fournier D, Andrade-Navarro MA, et al. Cardiac alpha-myosin (MYH6) is the predominant sarcomeric disease gene for familial atrial septal defects. PLoS One. 2011. 6(12):e28872. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Chin AJ, Weinberg PM, Barber G. Subcostal two-dimensional echocardiographic identification of anomalous attachment of septum primum in patients with left atrioventricular valve underdevelopment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1990 Mar 1. 15(3):678-81. [Medline].

  11. Prompona M, Muehling O, Naebauer M, Schoenberg SO, Reiser M, Huber A. MRI for detection of anomalous pulmonary venous drainage in patients with sinus venosus atrial septal defects. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 Mar. 27(3):403-12. [Medline].

  12. Hoey ET, Gopalan D, Ganesh V, Agrawal SK, Screaton NJ. Atrial septal defects: magnetic resonance and computed tomography appearances. J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol. 2009 Jun. 53(3):261-70. [Medline].

  13. Kilner PJ. The role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with congenital heart disease. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Nov-Dec. 54(3):295-304. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  14. Johri AM, Rojas CA, El-Sherief A, Witzke CF, Chitty DW, Palacios IF, et al. Imaging of atrial septal defects: echocardiography and CT correlation. Heart. 2011 Sep. 97(17):1441-53. [Medline].

  15. Ko SF, Liang CD, Yip HK, Huang CC, Ng SH, Huang CF. Amplatzer septal occluder closure of atrial septal defect: evaluation of transthoracic echocardiography, cardiac CT, and transesophageal echocardiography. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2009 Dec. 193(6):1522-9. [Medline].

  16. Vida VL, Padalino MA, Boccuzzo G, Veshti AA, Speggiorin S, Falasco G. Minimally invasive operation for congenital heart disease: a sex-differentiated approach. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009 Oct. 138(4):933-6. [Medline].

  17. Moore J, Hegde S, El-Said H, Beekman R 3rd, Benson L, Bergersen L, et al. Transcatheter device closure of atrial septal defects: a safety review. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2013 May. 6(5):433-42. [Medline].

  18. Kutty S, Hazeem AA, Brown K, Danford CJ, Worley SE, Delaney JW, et al. Long-term (5- to 20-year) outcomes after transcatheter or surgical treatment of hemodynamically significant isolated secundum atrial septal defect. Am J Cardiol. 2012 May 1. 109(9):1348-52. [Medline].

  19. Fukazawa M, Fukushige J, Ueda K. Atrial septal defects in neonates with reference to spontaneous closure. Am Heart J. 1988 Jul. 116(1 Pt 1):123-7. [Medline].

  20. Hanslik A, Pospisil U, Salzer-Muhar U, Greber-Platzer S, Male C. Predictors of spontaneous closure of isolated secundum atrial septal defect in children: a longitudinal study. Pediatrics. 2006 Oct. 118(4):1560-5. [Medline].

  21. Jonas RA. Atrial septal defect. Comprehensive Surgical Management of Congenital Heart Disease. 2004. 225-41.

  22. Murphy JG, Gersh BJ, McGoon MD, et al. Long-term outcome after surgical repair of isolated atrial septal defect. Follow-up at 27 to 32 years. N Engl J Med. 1990 Dec 13. 323(24):1645-50. [Medline].

  23. Alexi-Meskishvili VV, Konstantinov IE. Surgery for atrial septal defect: from the first experiments to clinical practice. Ann Thorac Surg. 2003 Jul. 76(1):322-7. [Medline].

  24. Bierman FZ, Williams RG. Subxiphoid two-dimensional imaging of the interatrial septum in infants and neonates with congenital heart disease. Circulation. 1979 Jul. 60(1):80-90. [Medline].

  25. Bruneau BG. The developmental genetics of congenital heart disease. Nature. Febuary 2008. 451(7178):943-8. [Medline].

  26. Butera G, Carminati M, Chessa M, et al. Percutaneous versus surgical closure of secundum atrial septal defect: comparison of early results and complications. Am Heart J. 2006. 151(1):228-34. [Medline].

  27. Chin AJ, Murphy JD. Identification of coronary sinus septal defect (unroofed coronary sinus) by color Doppler echocardiography. Am Heart J. 1992 Dec. 124(6):1655-7. [Medline].

  28. Driscoll DJ. Left-to-right shunt lesions. Pediatr Clin North Am. 1999 Apr. 46(2):355-68, x. [Medline].

  29. Friedman WF. Congenital heart disease in infancy and childhood. Braunwald ed. Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 5th ed. 1997. 896-910.

  30. Helgason H, Jonsdottir G. Spontaneous closure of atrial septal defects. Pediatr Cardiol. 1999. 20(3):195-9. [Medline].

  31. Mahoney LT, Truesdell SC, Krzmarzick TR, Lauer RM. Atrial septal defects that present in infancy. Am J Dis Child. 1986 Nov. 140(11):1115-8. [Medline].

  32. Mas MS, Bricker JT. Clinical physiology of left-to-right shunts. The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiology. 1990. Vol 2: 999-1001.

  33. Patel HT, Hijazi ZM. Pediatric catheter interventions: a year in review 2004-2005. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005. 17(5):568-73. [Medline].

  34. Porter CJ, Feldt RH, Edwards WD, et al. Atrial septal defects. Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. 6th ed. 2001. Vol 1: 603-17.

  35. Radzik D, Davignon A, van Doesburg N, et al. Predictive factors for spontaneous closure of atrial septal defects diagnosed in the first 3 months of life. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1993 Sep. 22(3):851-3. [Medline].

  36. Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al. Prevention of infective endocarditis: guidelines from the American Heart Association: a guideline from the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group. Circulation. 2007 Oct 9. 116(15):1736-54. [Medline].

  37. Yeager SB, Chin AJ, Sanders SP. Subxiphoid two-dimensional echocardiographic diagnosis of coronary sinus septal defects. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Sep 1. 54(6):686-7. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
Subcostal echocardiographic view of a child with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Note the position of the defect in the atrial septum. RA = Right atrium; LA = Left atrium; SVC = Superior vena cava.
Subcostal long-axis view of the same child as in the previous image with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). RA = Right atrium; LA = Left atrium; RUPV = Right upper pulmonary vein.
Parasternal short axis view of a child with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). RA = Right atrium; LA = Left atrium; AO = Aorta.
Apical echocardiographic view of a primum atrial septal defect (ASD). Note the position of the defect when compared with a secundum ASD. RA = Right atrium; LA = Left atrium; RV = Right ventricle; LV = Left ventricle.
Apical echocardiographic view of a primum atrial septal defect (ASD). Note that the atrioventricular valves are at the same level (instead of mild apical displacement of the tricuspid valve), which is seen in the spectrum of atrioventricular canal defects. RA = Right atrium; LA = Left atrium; RV = Right ventricle; LV = Left ventricle.
Apical color Doppler echocardiographic view of a primum atrial septal defect (ASD). Note the flow across the defect from the left atrium to the right atrium (RA), and note the mitral regurgitation (MR) through a cleft in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. MV = Mitral valve; LV = Left ventricle.
Subcostal short-axis view of a child with a sinus venosus atrial septal defect (ASD). Note the position of the defect compared with that of a secundum or primum ASD. Also note the anomalous position of the right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV). RA = Right atrium; LA = Left atrium.
ECGs from a child with a secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). Note the right-axis deviation and rSR' pattern in lead V1.
ECG from a child with a primum atrial septal defect (ASD). Note the left-axis deviation with a counterclockwise vector of depolarization (small q waves in leads I and aVL) and right ventricular hypertrophy and/or volume overload (rSR' pattern and upright T wave in lead V1).
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.