Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Pediatric Viral Myocarditis Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Edwin Rodriguez-Cruz, MD; Chief Editor: Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI  more...
 
Updated: Aug 26, 2015
 

History

Clinical presentation of viral myocarditis widely varies. In mild forms, few or no symptoms are noted. In severe cases, patients may present with acute cardiac decompensation and progress to death usually weeks after the initial viral infection and prodromal symptoms.

Heart failure is the most common presenting picture in all ages. The condition of patients who present with heart failure may rapidly deteriorate even with supportive care. Neonates and young children have higher mortality rates than older patients. Rapid supportive care with blood pressure support, afterload reduction, diuretic therapy, and control of arrhythmia may prevent early death.

Although rare in young children, chest pain may be the initial presentation for older children, adolescents, and adults. Chest pain may be due to myocardial ischemia or concurrent pericarditis.

Patients can present with any type of dysrhythmia, including atrioventricular conduction disturbances. Sinus tachycardia is typically a compensatory mechanism in patients with myocardial dysfunction, and the rate is faster than expected for the degree of fever present, which is typically low-grade. Junctional tachycardia is also seen and can be difficult to control medically.

The debate continues over whether myocarditis progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy. Many investigators believe that dilated cardiomyopathy is a direct result of a previously burned-out myocarditis episode.

Initial symptoms in infants include the following:

  • Irritability
  • Lethargy
  • Periodic episodes of pallor
  • Fever
  • Hypothermia
  • Tachypnea
  • Anorexia
  • Failure to thrive
  • Diaphoresis

Older children present with similar symptoms and may experience lack of energy and general malaise. Parents of pediatric patients may refer to a recent, nonspecific, flulike illness, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, poor feeding, or rapid breathing.

Next

Physical Examination

Signs of diminished cardiac output, such as tachycardia, weak pulse, cool extremities, decreased capillary refill, and pale or mottled skin, may be present (see the Cardiac Output calculator). Heart sounds may be muffled, especially in the presence of pericarditis. An S3 may be present, and a heart murmur caused by atrioventricular valve regurgitation may be heard. Hepatomegaly may be present in younger children. Rales may be heard in older children. Jugular venous distention and edema of the lower extremities may be present in older patients.

Neonates

Neonates may seem irritable, be in respiratory distress, and exhibit signs of sepsis. Somnolence, hypotonia, and seizures can be associated if the central nervous system (CNS) is involved.

Hypothermia or hyperthermia, oliguria, elevated liver enzymes, and elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels caused by direct viral damage, low cardiac output, or both may be present.

Infants

Signs include failure to thrive, anorexia, tachypnea, tachycardia, wheezing, and diaphoresis with feeding. End-organ damage may develop because of direct viral infestation or because of low cardiac output. CNS involvement may also develop. In severe cases, low cardiac output may progress to acidosis and death.

Adolescents

The presentation of viral myocarditis may be similar to that in younger children but with a more prominent decrease in exercise tolerance, lack of energy, malaise, chest pain, low-grade fever, arrhythmia, and cough. End organ damage and low cardiac output may be present.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Edwin Rodriguez-Cruz, MD Director, Section of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, San Jorge Children’s Hospital, Puerto Rico; Private Practice in Interventional Pediatric Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Centro Pedíatrico y Cardiovascular

Edwin Rodriguez-Cruz, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Pediatric Echocardiography, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, Puerto Rico Medical Association

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: St Jude's Medical Co.<br/>Received grant/research funds from NOVARTIS for investigator; Received consulting fee from St. Jude Medical Corp. for speaking and teaching.

Coauthor(s)

Robert D Ross, MD Director of Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Program, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Hospital of Michigan; Professor of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine

Robert D Ross, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Society of Pediatric Echocardiography

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; Director of Interventional Pediatric Cardiology, Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital

Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: St. Jude Medical.

Acknowledgements

Ameeta Martin, MD Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Nebraska College of Medicine

Ameeta Martin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Cardiology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Bohn D, Benson L. Diagnosis and management of pediatric myocarditis. Paediatr Drugs. 2002. 4(3):171-81. [Medline].

  2. [Guideline] Aretz HT. Myocarditis: the Dallas criteria. Hum Pathol. 1987 Jun. 18(6):619-24. [Medline].

  3. Fett JD. Diagnosis of viral cardiomyopathy by analysis of peripheral blood?. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2008 Sep. 12(9):1073-5. [Medline].

  4. Kühl U, Pauschinger M, Seeberg B, Lassner D, Noutsias M, Poller W, et al. Viral persistence in the myocardium is associated with progressive cardiac dysfunction. Circulation. 2005 Sep 27. 112(13):1965-70. [Medline].

  5. Molina KM, Garcia X, Denfield SW, Fan Y, Morrow WR, Towbin JA, et al. Parvovirus B19 myocarditis causes significant morbidity and mortality in children. Pediatr Cardiol. 2013 Feb. 34(2):390-7. [Medline].

  6. Kawashima H, Morichi S, Okumara A, Nakagawa S, Morishima T. National survey of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009-associated encephalopathy in Japanese children. J Med Virol. 2012 Aug. 84(8):1151-6. [Medline].

  7. Lerner AM, Wilson FM. Virus myocardiopathy. Prog Med Virol. 1973. DA - 19730608:63-91. [Medline].

  8. Kindermann I, Kindermann M, Kandolf R, Klingel K, Bültmann B, Müller T, et al. Predictors of outcome in patients with suspected myocarditis. Circulation. 2008 Aug 5. 118(6):639-48. [Medline].

  9. Dennert R, Crijns HJ, Heymans S. Acute viral myocarditis. Eur Heart J. 2008 Sep. 29(17):2073-82. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Bowles NE, Ni J, Kearney DL, et al. Detection of viruses in myocardial tissues by polymerase chain reaction. evidence of adenovirus as a common cause of myocarditis in children and adults. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003 Aug 6. 42(3):466-72. [Medline].

  11. Renko M, Leskinen M, Kontiokari T, et al. Cardiac troponin-I as a screening tool for myocarditis in children hospitalized for viral infection. Acta Paediatr. 2009 Nov 4. [Medline].

  12. Sun Y, Ma P, Bax JJ, et al. 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in myocarditis. Nucl Med Commun. 2003 Jul. 24(7):779-83. [Medline].

  13. Freedman SB, Haladyn JK, Floh A, Kirsh JA, Taylor G, Thull-Freedman J. Pediatric myocarditis: emergency department clinical findings and diagnostic evaluation. Pediatrics. 2007 Dec. 120(6):1278-85. [Medline].

  14. Aretz HT. Diagnosis of myocarditis by endomyocardial biopsy. Med Clin North Am. 1986 Nov. 70(6):1215-26. [Medline].

  15. Mahfoud F, Gärtner B, Kindermann M, Ukena C, Gadomski K, Klingel K, et al. Virus serology in patients with suspected myocarditis: utility or futility?. Eur Heart J. 2011 Apr. 32(7):897-903. [Medline].

  16. Weber MA, Ashworth MT, Risdon RA, Malone M, Burch M, Sebire NJ. Clinicopathological features of paediatric deaths due to myocarditis: an autopsy series. Arch Dis Child. 2008 Jul. 93(7):594-8. [Medline].

  17. Mason JW, O'Connell JB, Herskowitz A, et al. A clinical trial of immunosuppressive therapy for myocarditis. The Myocarditis Treatment Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med. 1995 Aug 3. 333(5):269-75. [Medline].

  18. Drucker NA, Colan SD, Lewis AB, et al. Gamma-globulin treatment of acute myocarditis in the pediatric population. Circulation. 1994 Jan. 89(1):252-7. [Medline].

  19. Robinson JL, Hartling L, Crumley E, et al. A systematic review of intravenous gamma globulin for therapy of acute myocarditis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2005 Jun 2. 5(1):12. [Medline].

 
Previous
Next
 
Hypersensitivity myocarditis. High magnification of myocardium with perivascular infiltrates rich in eosinophils. This patient had a clinical history compatible with drug-induced hypersensitivity myocarditis.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.