Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Valvar Pulmonary Stenosis Follow-up

  • Author: P Syamasundar Rao, MD; Chief Editor: Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI  more...
Updated: Jun 26, 2014

Further Outpatient Care

Clinical, ECG, and Doppler echocardiographic evaluation are recommended at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty and yearly thereafter.

Patients with trivial and mild pulmonary stenosis do not need intervention to relieve the pulmonary valve obstruction. However, they should be clinically followed up at periodic intervals (eg, on a yearly basis).

Routine well-child care, including immunizations, as per the primary physician, is suggested.

Physical activity should be normal.

Most patients with pulmonary stenosis are given prophylaxis for subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE).

Opinions differ about the need for SBE prophylaxis in patients with valvar pulmonary stenosis because of the extremely low incidence of pulmonary valve endocarditis in this relatively large subpopulation. The author recommends SBE prophylaxis for all patients with valvar pulmonary stenosis.


Further Inpatient Care

The neonate with critical pulmonary valve stenosis requires special consideration. Patients with critical pulmonary stenosis may present with near–pulmonary atresia (cyanotic lesion) with a small and often inadequate right ventricle. These patients survive because of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Although balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty produces good results, nearly 25% patients require reintervention to address related complications, restenosis, and associated defects.

Patients with associated severe infundibular or supravalvar pulmonary stenosis require surgical intervention.

Definitive repair may not be possible if the right ventricle is hypoplastic or if single ventricular palliation (eg, the Fontan procedure or a variation of this) is needed. The modified Fontan procedure currently used is staged cavopulmonary connection.


Patient Education

Reassure patients and parents of children with mild valvar pulmonary stenosis that this condition is not related to or associated with coronary artery disease, dysrhythmia, or sudden death.

Insurability may become a factor in obtaining further care. Patients are no more at risk for disastrous health consequences than is the usual population.

Provided the patient is asymptomatic and acyanotic and provided that initial Doppler echocardiograms show only mild valvar pulmonary stenosis, yearly screening examination and ECG are prudent follow-up care.

If evaluations performed a few years after the initial evaluation reveal no clinically significant change, the patient may be followed up once every 3-5 years.

For patient education resources, see the Heart Health Center, as well as Tetralogy of Fallot.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

P Syamasundar Rao, MD Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emeritus Chief of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital

P Syamasundar Rao, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Pediatric Society, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Kurt Pflieger, MD, FAAP Active Staff, Department of Pediatrics, Lake Pointe Medical Center

Kurt Pflieger, MD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Heart Association, Texas Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

John W Moore, MD, MPH Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Section of Pediatic Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego School of Medicine; Director of Cardiology, Rady Children's Hospital

John W Moore, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; Director of Interventional Pediatric Cardiology, Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital

Howard S Weber, MD, FSCAI is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Disclosure: Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: St. Jude Medical.

Additional Contributors

Jeffrey Allen Towbin, MD, MSc FAAP, FACC, FAHA, Professor, Departments of Pediatrics (Cardiology), Cardiovascular Sciences, and Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine; Chief of Pediatric Cardiology, Foundation Chair in Pediatric Cardiac Research, Texas Children's Hospital

Jeffrey Allen Towbin, MD, MSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Cardiology, American College of Sports Medicine, American Heart Association, American Medical Association, American Society of Human Genetics, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for Pediatric Research, Texas Medical Association, Texas Pediatric Society, Cardiac Electrophysiology Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Rao PS. Pulmonary Valve Disease. Alpert JS, Dalen JE, Rahimtoola S, eds. Valvular Heart Disease. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott Raven; 2000. 339-76.

  2. Gikonyo BM, Lucas RV, Edwards JE. Anatomic features of congenital pulmonary valvar stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 1987. 8(2):109-16. [Medline].

  3. Koretzky ED, Moller JH, Korns ME, et al. Congenital pulmonary stenosis resulting from dysplasia of valve. Circulation. 1969 Jul. 40(1):43-53. [Medline].

  4. Jeffery RF, Moller JH, Amplatz K. The dysplastic pulmonary valve: a new roentgenographic entity; with a discussion of the anatomy and radiology of other types of valvular pulmonary stenosis. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med. 1972 Feb. 114(2):322-39. [Medline].

  5. Thapar MK, Rao PS. Significance of infundibular obstruction following balloon valvuloplasty for valvar pulmonic stenosis. Am Heart J. 1989 Jul. 118(1):99-103. [Medline].

  6. Holman E. On circumscribed dilation of an artery immediately distal to a partially occluding band: poststenotic dilatation. Surgery. 1954 Jul. 36(1):3-24. [Medline].

  7. Rodbard S, Ikeda K, Montes M. An analysis of mechanisms of post stenotic dilatation. Angiology. 1967 Jun. 18(6):349-67. [Medline].

  8. Abadir S, Edouard T, Julia S. Severe aortic valvar stenosis in familial Noonan syndrome with mutation of the PTPN11 gene. Cardiol Young. 2007 Feb. 17(1):95-7. [Medline].

  9. Noonan JA. Hypertelorism with Turner phenotype. A new syndrome with associated congenital heart disease. Am J Dis Child. 1968 Oct. 116(4):373-80. [Medline].

  10. Harinck E, Becker AE, Groot AC, Oppenheimer-Dekker A, Versprille A. The left ventricle in congenital isolated pulmonary valve stenosis. A morphological study. Br Heart J. 1977 Apr. 39(4):429-35. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. Sholler GF, Colan SD, Sanders SP. Effect of isolated right ventricular outflow obstruction on left ventricular function in infants. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Oct 1. 62(10 Pt 1):778-84. [Medline].

  12. Rao PS. Right ventricular filling following balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Am Heart J. 1992 Apr. 123(4 Pt 1):1084-6. [Medline].

  13. Williams JC, Barratt-Boyes BG, Lowe JB. Underdeveloped right ventricle and pulmonary stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 1963 Apr. 11:458-68. [Medline].

  14. Nadas A. Pulmonary stenosis. In: Fyler DC, ed. Nadas' Pediatric Cardiology. Hanley & Belfus. 1992:459-470.

  15. Keith JD, Rowe RD, Vlad P. Heart Disease in Infancy and Childhood. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Macmillan Co; 1978. 4-6, 761-88.

  16. Johnson LW, Grossman W, Dalen JE, Dexter L. Pulmonic stenosis in the adult. Long-term follow-up results. N Engl J Med. 1972 Dec 7. 287(23):1159-63. [Medline].

  17. Abrahams DG, Wood P. Pulmonary stenosis with normal aortic root. Br Heart J. 1951 Oct. 13(4):519-48. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  18. Campbell M. Simple pulmonary stenosis; pulmonary valvular stenosis with a closed ventricular septum. Br Heart J. 1954 Jul. 16(3):273-300. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  19. Kopecky SL, Gersh BJ, McGoon MD, Mair DD, Porter CJ, Ilstrup DM, et al. Long-term outcome of patients undergoing surgical repair of isolated pulmonary valve stenosis. Follow-up at 20-30 years. Circulation. 1988 Nov. 78(5 Pt 1):1150-6. [Medline].

  20. Rao PS. Demographic features of tricuspid atresia. Rao PS, ed. Tricuspid Atresia. 2nd ed. Mt. Kisco, NY: Futura; 1992. 23-37.

  21. Blount SG Jr, Komesu S, McCord MC. Asymptomatic isolated valvular pulmonary stenosis; diagnosis by clinical methods. N Engl J Med. 1953 Jan 1. 248(1):5-11. [Medline].

  22. Ainsworth H, Hunt J, Joseph M. Numerical evaluation of facial pattern in children with isolated pulmonary stenosis. Arch Dis Child. 1979 Sep. 54(9):662-9. [Medline].

  23. Vogelpoel L, Schrire V. Ausculatory and phonocardiographic assessment of pulmonary stenosis with intact ventricular septum. Circulation. 1960. 22:55.

  24. Rao PS. Evaluation of cardiac murmurs in children. Indian J Pediatr. 1991 Jul-Aug. 58(4):471-91. [Medline].

  25. Nora JJ. Multifactorial inheritance hypothesis for etiology of congenital heart disease. Circulation. 1968. 38:604-17.

  26. Campbell M. Natural history of cyanotic malformations and comparison of all common cardiac malformations. Br Heart J. 1972 Jan. 34(1):3-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  27. Nora JJ, Torres FG, Sinha AK, McNamara DG. Characteristic cardiovascular anomalies of XO Turner syndrome, XX and XY phenotype and XO-XX Turner mosaic. Am J Cardiol. 1970 Jun. 25(6):639-41. [Medline].

  28. Nora JJ, Nora AH. Recurrence risks in children having one parent with a congenital heart disease. Circulation. 1976 Apr. 53(4):701-2. [Medline].

  29. Shannon DC, Lusser M, Goldblatt A, Bunnell JB. The cyanotic infant--heart disease or lung disease. N Engl J Med. 1972 Nov 9. 287(19):951-3. [Medline].

  30. Rao PS, Marino BL, Robertson AF 3rd. Usefulness of continuous positive airway pressure in differential diagnosis of cardiac from pulmonary cyanosis in newborn infants. Arch Dis Child. 1978 Jun. 53(6):456-60. [Medline].

  31. Weyman AE, Hurwitz RA, Girod DA, Dillon JC, Feigenbaum H, Green D. Cross-sectional echocardiographic visualization of the stenotic pulmonary valve. Circulation. 1977 Nov. 56(5):769-74. [Medline].

  32. Lima CO, Sahn DJ, Valdes-Cruz LM, et al. Noninvasive prediction of transvalvular pressure gradient in patients with pulmonary stenosis by quantitative two-dimensional echocardiographic Doppler studies. Circulation. 1983 Apr. 67(4):866-71. [Medline].

  33. Johnson GL, Kwan OL, Handshoe S, Noonan JA, DeMaria AN. Accuracy of combined two-dimensional echocardiography and continuous wave Doppler recordings in the estimation of pressure gradient in right ventricular outlet obstruction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1984 Apr. 3(4):1013-8. [Medline].

  34. Currie PJ, Seward JB, Chan KL, et al. Continuous wave Doppler determination of right ventricular pressure: a simultaneous Doppler-catheterization study in 127 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985 Oct. 6(4):750-6. [Medline].

  35. Rao PS. Doppler ultrasound in the prediction of transvalvar pressure gradients in patients with valvar pulmonary stenosis. Int J Cardiol. 1987 May. 15(2):195-203. [Medline].

  36. Singh GK, Singh GK, Balfour IC, et al. Lesion Specific Pressure Recovery Phenomenon in Pediatric Patients: A Simultaneous Doppler and Catheter Correlative Study. Poster presentation at the 52nd Annual Scientific Session of the American College of Cardiology, Chicago, IL, March 30 - April 2, 2003,. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003. 41:493A.

  37. Silove ED, Vogel JH, Grover RF. The pressure gradient in ventricular outflow obstruction: influence of peripheral resistance. Cardiovasc Res. 1968 Jul. 2(3):234-42. [Medline].

  38. Rao PS, Linde LM. Pressure and energy in cardiovascular chambers. Chest. 1974. 66:176-8.

  39. Balfour IC, Rao PS. Pulmonary Stenosis. Curr Treat Options Cardiovasc Med. 2000 Dec. 2(6):489-498. [Medline].

  40. Krasemann T. [Catheter interventions for congenital heart disease]. Herz. 2008 Dec. 33(8):592-600. [Medline].

  41. Rao PS. Indications for balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Am Heart J. 1988 Dec. 116(6 Pt 1):1661-2. [Medline].

  42. Nugent EW, Freedom RM, Nora JJ, et al. Clinical course in pulmonary stenosis. Circulation. 1977 Aug. 56(1 Suppl):I38-47. [Medline].

  43. Drossner DM, Mahle WT. A management strategy for mild valvar pulmonary stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008 May. 29(3):649-52. [Medline].

  44. Herberg U, Goltz D, Weiss H, Gembruch U, Breuer J. Combined Pulmonary and Aortic Valve Stenosis - Prenatal Diagnosis and Postnatal Interventional Therapy. Neonatology. 2009 May 12. 96(4):244-247. [Medline].

  45. Galindo A, Gutierrez-Larraya F, Velasco JM, de la Fuente P. Pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty in a fetus with critical pulmonary stenosis/atresia with intact ventricular septum and heart failure. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2006. 21(1):100-4. [Medline].

  46. Lange PE, Onnasch DGW, Heintzen PH. Valvular pulmonary stenosis: natural history and right ventricular function. Doyle EF, et al, eds. Pediatric Cardiology. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag; 1986. 395-8.

  47. Krabill KA, Wang Y, Einzig S, Moller JH. Rest and exercise hemodynamics in pulmonary stenosis: comparison of children and adults. Am J Cardiol. 1985 Aug 1. 56(4):360-5. [Medline].

  48. Rubio-Alvarez V, Limon-Lason R, Soni J. Valvulotomias intracardiacas por medio de un cateter. Arch Inst Cordiol Mexico. 1952. 23:183-92.

  49. Semb BK, Tjonneland S, Stake G, Aabyholm G. "Balloon valvulotomy" of congenital pulmonary valve stenosis with tricuspid valve insufficiency. Cardiovasc Radiol. 1979 Nov. 2(4):239-41. [Medline].

  50. Kan JS, White RI, Mitchell SE, Gardner TJ. Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty: a new method for treating congenital pulmonary-valve stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1982 Aug 26. 307(9):540-2. [Medline].

  51. Dotter CT, Judkins MP. Transluminal treatment of arteriosclerotic obstruction: description of a new technique and a preliminary report of its application. Circulation. 1967. 30:654.

  52. Rao PS. Role of Interventional Cardiology In Neonates: Part I. Non-Surgical Atrial Septostomy. Congenital Cardiol Today. 2007. 5(12):1-12.

  53. Rao PS. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for isolated pulmonic stenosis. Transcatheter Therapy in Pediatric Cardiology. Wiley-Liss; 1993. 59-104.

  54. Rao PS. Transcatheter treatment of pulmonary outflow tract obstruction: a review. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1992 Sep-Oct. 35(2):119-58. [Medline].

  55. Rao PS. Influence of balloon size on short-term and long-term results of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Tex Heart Inst J. 1987 Mar. 14(1):57-61. [Medline].

  56. Rao PS. Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: state of the art. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2007 Apr 1. 69(5):747-63. [Medline].

  57. Rao PS. Pulmonary valve stenosis. Sievert H, Qureshi SA, Wilson N, Hijazi Z, eds. Percutaneous Interventions in Congenital Heart Disease,. Oxford, UK: Informa Health Care; 2007. 185-95.

  58. Radtke W, Keane JF, Fellows KE, et al. Percutaneous balloon valvotomy of congenital pulmonary stenosis using oversized balloons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986 Oct. 8(4):909-15. [Medline].

  59. Rao PS. Further observations on the effect of balloon size on the short term and intermediate term results of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. Br Heart J. 1988 Dec. 60(6):507-11. [Medline].

  60. Berman W, Fripp RR, Raisher BD, Yabek SM. Significant pulmonary valve incompetence following oversize balloon pulmonary valveplasty in small infants: A long-term follow-up study. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 1999 Sep. 48(1):61-5; discussion 66. [Medline].

  61. Rao PS. Late pulmonary insufficiency after balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve [letter]. Cathet Cardiovasc Intervent. 2000. 49:118-9.

  62. Rao PS. How big a balloon and how many balloons for pulmonary valvuloplasty?. Am Heart J. 1988 Aug. 116(2 Pt 1):577-80. [Medline].

  63. Rao PS, Fawzy ME. Double balloon technique for percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: comparison with single balloon technique. Intervent Cardiol. 1988. 1:257.

  64. Bahl VK, Chandra S, Goel A, et al. Versatility of Inoue balloon catheter. Int J Cardiol. 1997 Mar. 59(1):75-83. [Medline].

  65. Rao PS. Balloon dilatation in infants and children with dysplastic pulmonary valves: short-term and intermediate-term results. Am Heart J. 1988 Nov. 116(5 Pt 1):1168-73. [Medline].

  66. Moguillansky D, Schneider HE, Rome JJ, Kreutzer J. Role of high-pressure balloon valvotomy for resistant pulmonary valve stenosis. Congenit Heart Dis. 2010 Mar-Apr. 5(2):134-40. [Medline].

  67. Abels JE. Balloon catheters and transluminal dilatation: technical considerations. Am J Roentgenol. 1980. 135:901.

  68. Rao PS. Balloon angioplasty and valvuloplasty in infants, children, and adolescents. Curr Probl Cardiol. 1989 Aug. 14(8):417-97. [Medline].

  69. Walls JT, Lababidi Z, Curtis JJ, Silver D. Assessment of percutaneous balloon pulmonary and aortic valvuloplasty. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1984 Sep. 88(3):352-6. [Medline].

  70. Ettedgui JA, Ho SY, Tynan M, Jones OD, Martin RP, Baker EJ. The pathology of balloon pulmonary valvoplasty. Int J Cardiol. 1987 Sep. 16(3):285-93. [Medline].

  71. Burrows PE, Benson LN, Smallhorn JS, Moes CA, Freedom RM, Burrows FA. Angiographic features associated with percutaneous balloon valvotomy for pulmonary valve stenosis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 1988 Apr. 11(2):111-6. [Medline].

  72. Benson LN, Smallhorn JS, Freedom RM, Trusler GA, Rowe RD. Pulmonary valve morphology after balloon dilatation of pulmonary valve stenosis. Cathet Cardiovasc Diagn. 1985. 11(2):161-6. [Medline].

  73. Marantz PM, Huhta JC, Mullins CE, Murphy DJ Jr, Nihill MR, Ludomirsky A. Results of balloon valvuloplasty in typical and dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis: Doppler echocardiographic follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1988 Aug. 12(2):476-9. [Medline].

  74. Rao PS. Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty: a review. Clin Cardiol. 1989 Feb. 12(2):55-74. [Medline].

  75. Rao PS. Pulmonary valve in children. Sigwart U, Bertrand M, Serruys PW, eds. Handbook of Cardiovascular Interventions. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1996. 273-310.

  76. Rao PS, Galal O, Patnana M. Results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. Heart. 1998 Dec. 80(6):591-5. [Medline].

  77. Fontes VF, Esteves CA, Sousa JE, et al. Regression of infundibular hypertrophy after pulmonary valvuloplasty for pulmonic stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Nov 1. 62(13):977-9. [Medline].

  78. Engle ME, Holswade GR, Goldberg HP, Lukas DS, Glenn F. Regression after open valvotomy of infundibular stenosis accompanying severe valvar pulmonary stenosis. Circulation. 1958. 17:862.

  79. Johnson AM. Hypertonic infundibular stenosis complicating simple pulmonary valve stenosis. Br Heart J. 1959. 21:429.

  80. Gilbert JW, Morrow AG, Talbert JL. The surgical significance of hypertophic infundibular obstruction accompanying valvular pulmonic stenosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1963 Oct. 46:457-67. [Medline].

  81. Rao PS. Long-term follow-up results after balloon dilatation of pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta: a review. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1999 Jul-Aug. 42(1):59-74. [Medline].

  82. Rao PS, Solymar L. Electrocardiographic changes following balloon dilatation of valvar pulmonic stenosis. J Intervent Cardiol. 1988. 1:189.

  83. Rao PS. Value of echo-Doppler studies in the evaluation of the results of balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. J Cardiovasc Ultrasonography. 1986. 309:

  84. Rao PS, Thapar MK, Kutayli F, Carey P. Causes of restenosis after balloon valvuloplasty for valvular pulmonary stenosis. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Nov 1. 62(13):979-82. [Medline].

  85. McCrindle BW. Independent predictors of long-term results after balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Valvuloplasty and Angioplasty of Congenital Anomalies (VACA) Registry Investigators. Circulation. 1994 Apr. 89(4):1751-9. [Medline].

  86. Rao PS, Galal O, Wilson AD. Feasibility and effectiveness of repeated balloon dilatation of restenosed congenital obstructions after previous balloon valvuloplasty/angioplasty. Am Heart J. 1996 Aug. 132(2 Pt 1):403-7. [Medline].

  87. Merino-Ingelmo R, Santos-de Soto J, Coserria-Sánchez F, Descalzo-Señoran A, Valverde-Pérez I. Long-term results of percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in pulmonary valve stenosis in the pediatric population. Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2014 May. 67(5):374-9. [Medline].

  88. O'Connor BK, Beekman RH, Lindauer A, Rocchini A. Intermediate-term outcome after pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty: comparison with a matched surgical control group. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992 Jul. 20(1):169-73. [Medline].

  89. Voet A, Rega F, de Bruaene AV, Troost E, Gewillig M, Van Damme S, et al. Long-term outcome after treatment of isolated pulmonary valve stenosis. Int J Cardiol. 2012 Apr 5. 156(1):11-5. [Medline].

  90. Rao PS. Balloon valvuloplasty in the neonate with critical pulmonary stenosis. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Feb. 27(2):479-80. [Medline].

  91. Jureidini SB, Rao PS. Critical Pulmonary Stenosis in the Neonate: Role of Transcatheter Management. J Invasive Cardiol. 1996 Sep. 8(7):326-331. [Medline].

  92. Tabatabaei H, Boutin C, Nykanen DG, Freedom RM, Benson LN. Morphologic and hemodynamic consequences after percutaneous balloon valvotomy for neonatal pulmonary stenosis: medium-term follow-up. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1996 Feb. 27(2):473-8. [Medline].

  93. Sellors TH. Surgery of pulmonary stenosis; a case in which the pulmonary valve was successfully divided. Lancet. 1948 Jun 26. 1(6513):988. [Medline].

  94. Brock RC. Pulmonary valvotomy for relief of congenital stenosis: report of 3 cases. Br Med J. 1948. 1:1121.

  95. Castenada AR, Jonas RA, Meyer JE. Surgery for infants with congenital heart defects. Cardiac Surgery of the Neonate and Infant. 1993. 1st ed: 1013-35.

  96. McNamara DG, Latson LA. Long-term follow-up of patients with malformations for which definitive surgical repair has been available for 25 years or more. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Sep. 50(3):560-8. [Medline].

  97. Rao PS, Liebman J, Borkat G. Right ventricular growth in a case of pulmonic stenosis with intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle. Circulation. 1976 Feb. 53(2):389-94. [Medline].

  98. Freedom RM. Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum. Mount Kisco, NY: Futura Publishing, Co; 1989. 1-257.

  99. Rao PS. Comprehensive management of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. Ann Thorac Surg. 1985 Oct. 40(4):409-13. [Medline].

  100. [Guideline] Bonow RO, Carabello BA, Chatterjee K. guideline for the management of patients with valvular heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006. 48(3):e1-148.

  101. Ho VB, Yucel EK, Khan A, et al. Suspected congenital heart disease in the adult. American College of Radiology. 2007. [Full Text].

  102. Vahanian A, Baumgartner H, Bax J, Butchart E, Dion R, Filippatos G, et al. Guidelines on the management of valvular heart disease: The Task Force on the Management of Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology. Eur Heart J. 2007 Jan. 28(2):230-68. [Medline].

In valvar pulmonic stenosis, the severity of obstruction may be judged by auscultatory findings. In mild stenosis, the ejection click (EC) is clearly separated from the first heart sound (S1). The murmur starts with the click, peaks in early systole, and ends way before the aortic component of the second heart sound (A2) The pulmonary component of the second heart sound (P2) is normal to increased in intensity. In moderate pulmonic stenosis, the click is closer to the first heart sound, the ejection murmur peaks later in the systole and the murmur reaches the A2, and the second heart sound is widely split with soft pulmonary component. In severe valvar obstruction, the click is either absent or occurs so close to S1 that it cannot be heard separately, and the murmur peaks late in systole and extends beyond the A2. The second heart sound is widely split with an extremely soft or inaudible P2. Reproduced from Rao PS: Evaluation of cardiac murmur in children. Indian J Pediatr 1991 Jul-Aug; 58(4): 471-91.
Posteroanterior chest roentgenogram in a patient with valvar pulmonic stenosis showing normal-sized heart with normal pulmonary vascular markings. Note prominent main pulmonary artery (arrow). Reproduced with permission from Rao PS: Diagnosis and management of acyanotic heart disease: Part I – Obstructive lesions. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72: 495-502.
Doppler flow velocity recordings from the main pulmonary artery prior to (left) and 1 day (center) and 10 months (right) after successful balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Note that no significant fall in the peak flow velocity is present on the day after balloon procedure, but a characteristic triangular pattern is present, indicative of infundibular obstruction. At 10-month follow-up, the flow velocity decreased, suggesting resolution of infundibular obstruction. Reproduced with permission from Thapar MK: Significance of infundibular obstruction following balloon valvuloplasty for valvar pulmonic stenosis. Am Heart J 1989; Jul; 118(1): 99-103.
Right ventricular (RV) cineangiogram in lateral view in a child with valvar pulmonary stenosis demonstrating thickened and domed pulmonary valve leaflets and poststenotic dilatation of the pulmonary artery (PA). Reproduced with permission from Rao PS: Diagnosis and management of acyanotic heart disease: Part I – Obstructive lesions. Indian J Pediatr 2005; 72: 495-502.
Selected cineradiographic frames of a balloon dilatation catheter placed across a stenotic pulmonary valve. Note "waisting" of the balloon during the initial phases of the balloon inflation (A), which was almost completely abolished during the later phases of balloon inflation (B). Reproduced from Rao PS: Balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty for isolated pulmonic stenosis. In: Rao PS, ed: Transcatheter Therapy in Pediatric Cardiology New York, NY: Wiley-Liss; 1993: 59-104.
Selected frames from lateral view of the right ventricular (RV) cineangiogram showing severe infundibular stenosis (A) immediately following balloon valvuloplasty (corresponding Media file 3, center). At 10 months after balloon valvuloplasty, the right ventricular outflow tract (B) is wide open and corresponds to Media file 3, right. Peak-to-peak pulmonary valve gradient was 20 mm Hg and no infundibular gradient was present. PA = Pulmonary artery. Reproduced with permission from Thapar MK: Significance of infundibular obstruction following balloon valvuloplasty for valvar pulmonic stenosis. Am Heart J 1989; Jul; 118(1): 99-103.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.