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Pediatric Patent Foramen Ovale Atrial Septal Defects Medication

  • Author: Barry A Love, MD; Chief Editor: P Syamasundar Rao, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jan 30, 2015
 

Anticoagulants

Class Summary

These agents are used to prevent recurrent or ongoing thromboembolic occlusion. Systemic anticoagulation may be indicated for patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and history of stroke or those at a significantly increased risk for paradoxical embolus.

Warfarin (Coumadin)

 

Interferes with hepatic synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Used for prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and thromboembolic disorders. Tailor dose to maintain an INR in the range of 2-3.

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Antiplatelets

Class Summary

Aspirin, at doses of 3-5 mg/kg daily, acts as an antiplatelet agent and appears to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke in patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale.

Aspirin (Anacin, Bayer)

 

Stronger inhibitor of both prostaglandin synthesis and platelet aggregation than other salicylic acid derivatives. Acetyl group is responsible for inactivation of cyclooxygenase via acetylation. Hydrolyzed rapidly in plasma, and elimination follows zero-order pharmacokinetics.

Irreversibly inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting platelet cyclooxygenase. This, in turn, inhibits conversion of arachidonic acid to PGI2 (potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet activation) and thromboxane A2 (potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregate). Platelet inhibition lasts for the life of the cell (approximately 10 d). May be used in low doses to inhibit platelet aggregation and to improve complications of venous stases and thrombosis. Indicated to prevent recurrent ischemic stroke.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Barry A Love, MD Assistant Professor , Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Assistant Professor, Division Pediatric Cardiology, Director, Pediatric Electrophysiology Service, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Michael A Portman, MD, MD Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine; Director of Research, Division of Cardiology, Seattle Children's Hospital; Attending Physician, Seattle Children's Heart Center; Attending Physician, Cardiology Clinic, Providence Everett Medical Center

Michael A Portman, MD, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, American Physiological Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Alvin J Chin, MD Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Alvin J Chin, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Society for Developmental Biology, American Heart Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

P Syamasundar Rao, MD Professor of Pediatrics and Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emeritus Chief of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital

P Syamasundar Rao, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Pediatric Society, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Paul M Seib, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences; Medical Director, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Co-Medical Director, Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit, Arkansas Children's Hospital

Paul M Seib, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, Arkansas Medical Society, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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This 2-dimensional echocardiogram in an infant (subcostal long-axis view) shows a patent foramen ovale. Right atrium (RA) and left atrium (LA).
Color Doppler of the patent foramen ovale (PFO) seen in the previous image. A small amount of left-to-right flow is present. This left-to-right flow pattern is typical for PFO seen in newborn infants.
Transesophageal echocardiogram showing the atrial septum. The "flap" of the septum primum is seen. The diagnosis of patent foramen ovale (PFO) cannot be made until right-to-left bubble contrast is demonstrated. LA = Left atrium; RA = Right atrium.
Bubble-contrast injection during Valsalva maneuver. The "flap" of the foramen ovale is opened and bubbles are seen crossing from the right atrium to the left atrium (arrow).
Transesophageal echocardiogram revealing a 25-mm Amplatzer patent foramen ovale (PFO) occluder in place across the PFO shown in the previous 2 images.
Transesophageal echocardiogram of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) closed with 25-mm Amplatzer PFO occluder. Bubble-contrast study with Valsalva post-device placement shows no residual right-to-left bubble passage.
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) study with bubble-contrast study. A Doppler probe is used to interrogate the right middle cerebral artery. Frame 1 shows normal findings. Note the absence of bubble artifact of Doppler signal in the middle cerebral artery. Frame 2 shows strongly positive (5/5) bubble transit seen in a patient with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) during Valsalva maneuver. TCD is a useful screening tool for PFO because of its ease-of-use and ability to easily quantify the amount of potential right-to-left shunt. One of the pitfalls is the inability to differentiate between other sources of right-to-left shunt, such as pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and a PFO.
Transesophageal echocardiogram of bubble contrast study showing right-to-left passage of bubble-contrast with a Valsalva maneuver. RA = Right atrium. LA = Left atrium. Arrow shows bubble passage to LA.
Transesophageal echocardiogram showing a 10-mm Amplatzer Septal Occluder in place across a patent foramen ovale.
 
 
 
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