Congenital Mitral Stenosis Differential Diagnoses
- Author: M Silvana Horenstein, MD; Chief Editor: Stuart Berger, MD more...
It is important that clinicians diagnose not only the primary problem but also any additional congenital cardiovascular abnormalities.
Refer patients who demonstrate increasing symptoms, especially those of congestive heart failure.
Patients who are pregnant have a higher risk of developing pulmonary edema because of the increased intravascular volume. For this reason, they should be closely monitored.
Asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients may only require close observation, but severely symptomatic patients may require urgent surgical intervention.
Pregnant women who require anticoagulation because of a prosthetic mitral valve should receive heparin, which does not cross the placental barrier. They should not receive warfarin because of its teratogenic effects and fetal wastage.
Pregnant women with underlying heart disease require antibiotic prophylaxis with ampicillin and gentamicin or with amoxicillin if they undergo potentially bacteremic procedures.
Of note, cesarean delivery or uncomplicated abdominal delivery are not indications for antibiotic prophylaxis.
Cor Triatriatum Sinister
Pulmonary Vein Stenosis
Kutty S, Colen TM, Smallhorn JF. Three-dimensional echocardiography in the assessment of congenital mitral valve disease. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2014 Feb. 27(2):142-54. [Medline].
McElhinney DB, Sherwood MC, Keane JF. Current management of severe congenital mitral stenosis: outcomes of transcatheter and surgical therapy in 108 infants and children. Circulation. 2005 Aug 2. 112(5):707-14. [Medline].
del Nido PJ, Baird C. Congenital mitral valve stenosis: anatomic variants and surgical reconstruction. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg Pediatr Card Surg Annu. 2012. 15(1):69-74. [Medline].
Delmo Walter EM, Komoda T, Siniawski H, Miera O, Van Praagh R, Hetzer R. Long-term surgical outcome of mitral valve repair in infants and children with Shone's anomaly. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2012 Sep 1. [Medline].
Baylen BG, Gleason MM, Waldhausen JA. Mitral valve abnormalities: Mitral inflow obstruction. Moss and Adams Heart Disease in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. 1995. Vol 2: 1042-54.
Brown JW, Fiore AC, Ruzmetov M, Eltayeb O, Rodefeld MD, Turrentine MW. Evolution of mitral valve replacement in children: a 40-year experience. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Feb. 93(2):626-33; discussion 633. [Medline].
Bruce CJ, Nishimura RA. Clinical assessment and management of mitral stenosis. Cardiol Clin. 1998 Aug. 16(3):375-403. [Medline].
Bruce CJ, Nishimura RA. Newer advances in the diagnosis and treatment of mitral stenosis. Curr Probl Cardiol. 1998 Mar. 23(3):125-92. [Medline].
Carabello BA, Crawford FA Jr. Valvular heart disease [published erratum appears in N Engl J Med 1997 Aug 14; 337(7): 507]. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jul 3. 337(1):32-41. [Medline].
Casta AR, Jonas RA, Mayer JE. Pediatric valve replacement. Cardiac Surgery of the Neonate and Infant. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1994. 387-95.
Chauvaud S. Congenital mitral valve surgery: techniques and results. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2006 Mar. 21(2):95-9. [Medline].
Dangas G, Gorlin R. Changing concepts in the determination of valvular stenosis. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1997 Jul-Aug. 40(1):55-64. [Medline].
Fabricius AM, Walther T, Falk V, Mohr FW. Three-dimensional echocardiography for planning of mitral valve surgery: current applicability?. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Aug. 78(2):575-8. [Medline].
Grifka RG, Vincent JA. Abnormalities of the left atrium and mitral valve, including mitral valve prolapse. The Science and Practice of Pediatric Cardiology. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; Vol 1: 1277-1301.
Karaci AR, Aydemir NA, Harmandar B, Sasmazel A, Saritas T, Tuncel Z, et al. Surgical treatment of infective valve endocarditis in children with congenital heart disease. J Card Surg. 2012 Jan. 27(1):93-8. [Medline].
Lamberti JJ, Mainwaring RD. Congenital anomalies of the mitral valve. Pediatric Cardiac Surgery. St Louis, MO: Mosby-Year Book; 1994. 459-73.
Park MK. Valvular heart disease. Pediatric Cardiology for Practitioners. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1996. 310-9.
PDR. Physician's Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare; 2000.
Roberts-Thomson KC, Stevenson IH, Kistler PM, et al. Anatomically determined functional conduction delay in the posterior left atrium relationship to structural heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Feb 26. 51(8):856-62. [Medline].
Schmidt M, Crnac J, Dederichs B, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in valvular heart disease. Int J Card Imaging. 1997 Jun. 13(3):219-31. [Medline].
Sokoloski MC. Tachyarrhythmias confined to the atrium. Gillette PC, Garson A Jr. eds. Clinical Pediatric Arrhythmias. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1999. 78-96.
Uva MS, Galletti L, Gayet FL, et al. Surgery for congenital mitral valve disease in the first year of life. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1995 Jan. 109(1):164-74; discussion 174-6. [Medline].
Villablanca AC. Heart disease during pregnancy. Which cardiovascular changes reflect disease?. Postgrad Med. 1998 Nov. 104(5):149-56. [Medline].
Wood AE, Healy DG, Nolke L, et al. Mitral valve reconstruction in a pediatric population: late clinical results and predictors of long-term outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Jul. 130(1):66-73. [Medline].