Double Orifice Mitral Valve Treatment & Management
- Author: Georgios A Hartas, MD; Chief Editor: Stuart Berger, MD more...
Patients with double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) are evaluated as outpatients. Patients should be admitted to the hospital for the treatment of severe heart failure, for pulmonary edema, for cardiac catheterization and for surgery.
Management depends on the type and severity of mitral valve dysfunction. Isolated double orifice mitral valve causing neither obstruction nor regurgitation needs no active intervention. This principle is important because the hemodynamics of a double orifice mitral valve at rest and during exercise do not differ from those of a normal mitral valve with a similar valvular area.
However, long-term follow-up and care are necessary to detect the onset of hemodynamic problems or complications.
All patients with clinically significant mitral stenosis or regurgitation require medical therapy and possibly transcatheter balloon or surgical treatment.
Roles of medical therapy
The roles of medical treatment include the following:
To initially stabilize the patient and to relieve pulmonary edema
To control congestive heart failure while detailed assessment and surgical repair is awaited
To serve as an adjunct to surgical repair in the postoperative period
To treat small infants, in whom medical therapy may be the only option (Control of congestive heart failure may defer surgery until the child grows to an appropriate age and size.)
Physical activity restriction of symptomatic patients. Treat patients with severe pulmonary venous congestion in a sitting or propped-up position. Administer parenteral morphine in patients with pulmonary edema to help relieve anxiety and reduce pulmonary congestion.
Administer oxygen by a nasal catheter or mask to improve oxygenation in patients with acute pulmonary edema. Vigorously treat concurrent infections or other aggravating factors. Correcting anemia, if present, is important. Increasing the oxygen-carrying capacity by a packed-cell transfusion in patients with severe symptoms or heart failure may provide considerable relief.
According to the updated guidelines of the American Heart Association, patients with double orifice mitral valve do not need antibiotic prophylaxis against infective endocarditis.
Percutaneous transcatheter balloon dilatation
Selected cases of double orifice mitral valve with mitral stenosis are amenable to percutaneous transcatheter balloon dilatation. This option offers a nonsurgical method of relieving obstruction. Successful dilatation has been reported in patients with the bridge type of double orifice mitral valve, especially if the bridge is incomplete. Stepwise dilatations by using an Inoue balloon are applied to the posteromedial orifice of the double orifice mitral valve. The results are best if the double orifice mitral valve is an isolated defect and if no major deformity of the subvalvular tensor apparatus is present.
Surgical standby is recommended to manage incomplete relief of obstruction or clinically significant disruption of the valve apparatus that causes mitral regurgitation.
Obtain consultations with a cardiologist and a cardiothoracic surgeon.
No surgery is necessary if the mitral valve is competent without mitral stenosis or mitral regurgitation.
This mitral anomaly can be difficult for even the most experienced surgeon to assess. The valve function should be tested to determine the cause of the regurgitation. If the regurgitation is due to a cleft in one orifice, then minor repair of the cleft may result in satisfactory function. Radical repair of the mitral valve has very poor outcome. The aim of surgical treatment of double orifice mitral valve is to correct abnormal mitral valve function and to repair all associated defects. A functionally normal double orifice mitral valve may be left intact even when the accompanying lesions are repaired.
Surgical repair should be performed in all symptomatic patients with regurgitant double orifice mitral valve. It should also be performed in patients with stenotic double orifice mitral valve, if balloon dilation is not feasible or fails to relieve obstruction. Emergency surgical intervention is occasionally needed to manage severe mitral regurgitation resulting from balloon valvuloplasty for mitral stenosis.
Closure of one orifice might produce acute diminution of the mitral valve area leading to a stenotic condition. It may also cause deformity at the fibrous bridging tissue, leading to incompetence of another intact orifice.
The type of operation should depend on the anatomic abnormality in the mitral valve apparatus. In many patients, the valve may be amenable to repair and reconstruction procedures, including resection of tissue, repair of defects and clefts, shortening of chordae, placement of artificial chordae, and annuloplasty. However, the delicate relationships among the various components of the valve and the subvalvar apparatus should be preserved.
Replacement of the mitral valve is indicated, if the valvular mechanism is markedly abnormal.
For high-risk surgical patients, such as the elderly, percutaneous mitral valve therapies, including the MitraClip, are being developed for the treatment of severe mitral regurgitation.[31, 32]
Asymptomatic patients with double orifice mitral valve require no special diet. Counsel patients with heart failure to avoid excess intake of salt or to reduce their salt intake. Prescribe salt restriction cautiously in infants.
Patients with pulmonary venous congestion or congestive heart failure should avoid strenuous exertion.
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