Pediatric Head Trauma Differential Diagnoses
- Author: Michael J Verive, MD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Timothy E Corden, MD more...
The following diagnostic pitfalls are associated with head trauma:
- Failure to recognize or suspect child abuse - One study suggests that certain combinations of clinical features may be suggestive of abusive head trauma, though a larger-scale prospective study would be required to develop a more refined tool
- Failure to recognize associated life-threatening injuries
- Failure to recognize severe head injury that may initially seem less serious in a patient with multiple trauma - An example is the Waddell triad for a child pedestrian hit by a motor vehicle, which involves chest-abdomen trauma, leg injury, and a countercoup head injury
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|Score||≥1 Year||0-1 Year|
|4||Opens eyes spontaneously||Opens eyes spontaneously|
|3||Opens eyes to a verbal command||Opens eyes to a shout|
|2||Opens eyes in response to pain||Opens eyes in response to pain|
|1||No response||No response|
|Score||≥1 Year||0-1 Year|
|5||Localizes pain||Localizes pain|
|4||Flexion withdrawal||Flexion withdrawal|
|3||Flexion abnormal (decorticate)||Flexion abnormal (decorticate)|
|2||Extension (decerebrate)||Extension (decerebrate)|
|1||No response||No response|
|Score||> 5 Years||2-5 Years||0-2 Years|
|5||Oriented and able to converse||Uses appropriate words||Cries appropriately|
|4||Disoriented and able to converse||Uses inappropriate words||Cries|
|3||Uses inappropriate words||Cries and/or screams||Cries and/or screams inappropriately|
|2||Makes incomprehensible sounds||Grunts||Grunts|
|1||No response||No response||No response|