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Pediatric Keratosis Pilaris Medication

  • Author: Derek H Chu, MD; Chief Editor: Dirk M Elston, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 07, 2014
 

Topical Skin Products

Class Summary

Alpha hydroxy acid is a normal constituent of tissues and blood. Acids act as humectants when applied topically and may decrease corneocyte cohesion.

Topically applied urea has a hygroscopic effect by increasing the water retention in skin. This helps to reduce pruritus.

Salicylic agents produce desquamation of the skin's horny layer. They are keratolytic at concentrations of 2-6%.

Salicylic acid topical (Clean & Clear Advantage, Neutrogena Acne Stress Control, Neutrogena Oil Free)

 

Removes excess keratin.

Ammonium lactate (Lac-Hydrin, AmLactin, Geri-Hydrolac 12)

 

Emollient available in 225-g and 400-g bottles and promotes hydration and removal of excess keratin. Contains lactic acid, an alpha hydroxy acid that has keratolytic action, thus facilitating release of comedones.

Urea cream 20% (Carmol 20, Ureacin 20, Gormel, DPM, Uramaxin)

 

Application of 20% urea promotes hydration and removal of excess keratin.

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Retinoid-like Agents

Class Summary

Retinoic acid decreases cohesiveness of follicular epithelial cells, stimulates mitotic activity, and increases turnover of follicular epithelial cells.

Tretinoin topical (Retin-A, Avita, Renova, Refissa)

 

Reduces cohesion among keratinized cells

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Corticosteroids

Class Summary

These agents elicit anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties.

Triamcinolone topical ( Oralone, Triderm, Zytopic, Kenalog)

 

A moderate-potency steroid with anti-inflammatory properties. It treats inflammatory dermatosis that is responsive to steroids. It decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing capillary permeability

Hydrocortisone topical (Cortaid, Cortizone,Westcort)

 

A moderate potency adrenocorticosteroid derivative suitable for application to skin or external mucous membranes. Has mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid effects, resulting in anti-inflammatory activity.

Mometasone (Elocon)

 

A moderate-potency steroid with anti-inflammatory properties. It treats inflammatory dermatosis that is responsive to steroids. Inhibits the activity and release of factors responsible for the inflammatory process.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Derek H Chu, MD Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Stanford University School of Medicine

Derek H Chu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, Society for Pediatric Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head of Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School; Visiting Professor, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, New York Academy of Medicine, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Dirk M Elston, MD Professor and Chairman, Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Dirk M Elston, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Andrea Leigh Zaenglein, MD Professor of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Department of Dermatology, Hershey Medical Center, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine

Andrea Leigh Zaenglein, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, Society for Pediatric Dermatology

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Galderma for consulting; Received consulting fee from Valeant for consulting; Received consulting fee from Promius for consulting; Received consulting fee from Anacor for consulting; Received grant/research funds from Stiefel for investigator; Received grant/research funds from Astellas for investigator; Received grant/research funds from Ranbaxy for other; Received consulting fee from Ranbaxy for consulting.

Acknowledgements

Mark A Crowe, MD Assistant Clinical Instructor, Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington School of Medicine

Mark A Crowe, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology and North American Clinical Dermatologic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Steven J Escobar, MD Staff, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Naval Medical Center, San Diego

Steven J Escobar, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Chest Physicians, American College of Physicians, and Society of Critical Care Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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  2. Poskitt L, Wilkinson JD. Natural history of keratosis pilaris. Br J Dermatol. 1994 Jun. 130(6):711-3. [Medline].

  3. Thomas M, Khopkar US. Keratosis pilaris revisited: is it more than just a follicular keratosis?. Int J Trichology. 2012 Oct. 4(4):255-8. [Medline].

  4. Mevorah B, Marazzi A, Frenk E. The prevalence of accentuated palmoplantar markings and keratosis pilaris in atopic dermatitis, autosomal dominant ichthyosis and control dermatological patients. Br J Dermatol. 1985 Jun. 112(6):679-85. [Medline].

  5. Marqueling AL, Gilliam AE, Prendiville J, Zvulunov A, Antaya RJ, Sugarman J. Keratosis pilaris rubra: a common but underrecognized condition. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Dec. 142(12):1611-6. [Medline].

  6. Castela E, Chiaverini C, Boralevi F, Hugues R, Lacour JP. Papular, profuse, and precocious keratosis pilaris. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012 May-Jun. 29(3):285-8. [Medline].

  7. Al-Maawali A, Marshall CR, Scherer SW, Dupuis L, Mendoza-Londono R, Stavropoulos DJ. Clinical characteristics in patients with interstitial deletions of chromosome region 12q21-q22 and identification of a critical region associated with keratosis pilaris. Am J Med Genet A. 2014 Mar. 164(3):796-800. [Medline].

  8. Sallakachart P, Nakjang Y. Keratosis pilaris: a clinico-histopathologic study. J Med Assoc Thai. 1987 Jul. 70(7):386-9. [Medline].

  9. Novick NL. Practical management of widespread, atypical keratosis pilaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984 Aug. 11(2 Pt 1):305-6. [Medline].

  10. Gerbig AW. Treating keratosis pilaris. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002 Sep. 47(3):457. [Medline].

  11. Breithaupt AD, Alio A, Friedlander SF. A comparative trial comparing the efficacy of tacrolimus 0.1% ointment with Aquaphor ointment for the treatment of keratosis pilaris. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011 Jul-Aug. 28(4):459-60. [Medline].

  12. Saelim P, Pongprutthipan M, Pootongkam S, Jariyasethavong V, Asawanonda P. Long-pulsed 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser significantly improves keratosis pilaris: a randomized, evaluator-blind study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2012 Mar 4. [Medline].

  13. Alcántara González J, Boixeda P, Truchuelo Díez MT, Fleta Asín B. Keratosis pilaris rubra and keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei treated with pulsed dye laser: report of 10 cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2011 Jun. 25(6):710-4. [Medline].

 
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Keratosis pilaris occurs most commonly on the lateral upper arms and upper thighs.
The lesions of keratosis pilaris are evenly spaced, consistent with the follicular origin of this disorder.
Close examination of keratosis pilaris shows keratotic papules associated with hair follicles. Keratinocytes at the follicular orifice are retained, producing keratin plugs.
Bacteria associated with the follicular papules of keratosis pilaris may cause some lesions to become erythematous or pustular.
 
 
 
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