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Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia Treatment & Management

  • Author: Annemarie K Loth, MD; Chief Editor: Caroly Pataki, MD  more...
 
Updated: Sep 03, 2014
 

Approach Considerations

Acute inpatient care is necessary for persons with behaviors dangerous to self or others. The child with schizophrenia who is severely impaired may need day treatment programs or hospitalization until the child is stabilized and not considered a danger to self or others.

Pharmacotherapy is essential in the treatment of individuals with childhood-onset psychosis. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has also been used adjunctively in rare cases.

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Medical Care

Pharmacotherapy

The first-line agents are neuroleptics. Newer atypical antipsychotic agents are generally chosen as the initial drugs of choice (DOC). Occasionally, the agitated child with new-onset schizophrenia may need a benzodiazepine to calm and alleviate the anxiety accompanying the experience of psychosis.

Repeating assessment for medication adverse effects using standard measures is essential. The abnormal involuntary movement scale (AIMS) is one such standard measure. Possibly one third of children on antipsychotics develop withdrawal dyskinesias.

Recommendations for monitoring adults on atypical antipsychotics include checking the following:

  • Weight at baseline; 4, 8, and 12 weeks; and then quarterly
  • Blood pressure at baseline, 12 weeks, and annually
  • Fasting plasma glucose level at baseline, 12 weeks, and annually
  • Fasting lipid profile at baseline, 12 weeks, and every 5 years

Similar recommendations regarding atypical antipsychotics are not yet available for children and adolescents, but careful monitoring of weight, blood pressure, and glucose and lipids levels seems warranted. A recent study by Correll et al examined the cardiometabolic effects of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and aripiprazole in a 12-week trial of children and adolescents who had mood disorders, psychotic disorders, or disruptive-behavior disorders. Significant weight gain was seen with each of these medications, with olanzapine and quetiapine causing the most weight gain. In addition, olanzapine and quetiapine significantly increased total cholesterol and triglycerides. Risperidone also significantly increased triglycerides. As a result of these findings, the authors concluded that cardiometabolic monitoring occur biannually after the first 3 months of treatment.[42]

The second-generation antipsychotics iloperidone (Fanapt), asenapine (Saphris), and lurasidone (Latuda) are approved for adult-onset schizophrenia, but not for pediatric patients.[43]

Ultra–high-risk intervention studies are exploring the use of antidepressants.[44]

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Psychosocial Management

The child with schizophrenia requires multimodal care. This should include social skills training, a supportive environment, and a structured individualized special education program. Supportive psychotherapy is used to encourage reality testing and to help the child monitor for warning symptoms of impending relapse.

Cognitive behavioral therapy has been used successfully in adults with schizophrenia and may help improve coping with schizophrenia and monitoring of beliefs and attributions.

If a patient has known or suspected substance abuse, the patient should be referred to a substance abuse treatment program.

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Diet

Typical and atypical antipsychotic medications may stimulate the appetite. Low-calorie snacks and limitation of total intake at meals may help prevent excess weight gain. Weight and body mass index (BMI) should be monitored in all patients on atypical antipsychotics.

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to study the preventive effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in adolescents and young adults with subthreshold psychosis, Amminger et al a difference of 22.6% between the treatment group and the placebo group in the cumulative risk of progression to full-threshold psychosis.[41]

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Consultations

Due to the pervasive problems of the child with schizophrenia, a team approach is needed. Involve nursing, speech and language therapy, and occupational and physical therapy. A case manager may facilitate care.

A psychologist is an essential part of the evaluation and treatment team. Because of the expected cognitive impairments, the mental health clinician should obtain intelligence quotient (IQ) and achievement testing for adequate educational planning. Projective tests, such as the Rorschach or the Thematic Apperception Test, may be helpful in eliciting additional information. However, their reliability and validity are not superior to a competent interview.

A child neurologist and geneticist may be needed to help evaluate for possible organic etiologies.

Children taking chlorpromazine and thioridazine should be checked for retinopathy and lenticular changes by an ophthalmologist.

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Long-Term Monitoring

The frequency of regular outpatient visits is determined by the presence of continuing symptoms. Many children with schizophrenia have a residual phase with predominantly negative symptoms that can be socially disabling.

During residual phase or remission, monitor the child with schizophrenia for recurrence of positive symptoms (eg, hallucinations, delusions) that may signal a relapse or worsening of negative symptoms.

Monitor for any new symptoms or episodes of mania. Approximately 15-20% of children with an initial diagnosis of schizophrenia may be found later to have bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder, or one of the disorders listed in the differential diagnosis.

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Prevention

Treatment before the emergence of psychosis is under investigation.

In very preliminary work, first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia who had suggestive symptoms and neuropsychologic deficits received risperidone with a subsequent reduction in suggestive symptoms and improvement in attention and working memory.[45]

In a randomized controlled trial that compared risperidone and cognitive behavior therapy with intervention for symptoms in individuals at very high risk for schizophrenia, fewer people in the active treatment group progressed to a first episode of psychosis.[46]

This preliminary finding raises the possibility that children with prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia can be treated before the emergence of psychosis. Further study is required before such therapy can be recommended.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Annemarie K Loth, MD Fellow in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine

Annemarie K Loth, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Psychiatric Association, Indiana Psychiatric Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

David W Dunn, MD Program Director, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Professor, Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine

David W Dunn, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, American Academy of Neurology, American Epilepsy Society, American Psychiatric Association, Child Neurology Society

Disclosure: Received research grant from: Eli Lilly<br/>Honorarium for grant review committee for Department of Defense.

Chief Editor

Caroly Pataki, MD Health Sciences Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, David Geffen School of Medicine

Caroly Pataki, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York Academy of Sciences, Physicians for Social Responsibility

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Angelo P Giardino, MD, PhD Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine; Medical Director, Texas Children's Health Plan, Inc

Angelo P Giardino, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Academic Pediatric Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, Harris County Medical Society, Helfer Society, and International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect

Disclosure: Bayer Honoraria Review panel membership; Pfizer Grant/research funds Independent contractor; MedImmune Honoraria Review panel membership

Raj K Kalapatapu, MD Fellow, Addiction Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

Raj K Kalapatapu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry, American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, American Medical Association, and American Psychiatric Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Childhood schizophrenia. Early and late gray matter deficits in schizophrenia. Areas of gray matter loss, shown in red and yellow, spread from back-to-front (right to left) over 5 years in composite MRI scan data from 12 teens with childhood-onset schizophrenia, beginning at age 14 (left). Red and yellow denotes areas of greater loss. Source: Paul Thompson, MD, UCLA, Laboratory of Neuroimaging. NIMH media file.
Childhood schizophrenia. Rate of gray matter loss. Composite MRI scan data showing areas of gray matter loss over 5 years, comparing 12 normal teens (left) and 12 teens with childhood-onset schizophrenia. Red and yellow denotes areas of greater loss. Front of brain is at left. Source: Paul Thompson, MD, UCLA, Laboratory of Neuroimaging. NIMH media file.
 
 
 
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