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Constitutional Growth Delay Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Pamela A Clark, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD  more...
 
Updated: Jul 28, 2016
 

History

Individuals with constitutional growth delay (CGD) are usually of normal size at birth. Deceleration in both height and weight velocity typically occurs within the first 3-6 months of life. This shift downward is similar to that observed in infants experiencing normal lag-down growth but tends to be more severe and prolonged. Individual variation is substantial; however, most children resume a normal growth velocity by age 2-3 years. During childhood, these individuals grow along or parallel to the lower percentiles of the growth curve.

Skeletal age, which is estimated from radiographic studies of the left hand and wrist, is usually delayed (typically 2-4 y by late childhood) and is most consistent with the child's height age (age for which a child's height is at the 50th percentile) rather than the child’s chronologic age.

Because the timing of the onset of puberty, pubertal growth spurt, and epiphyseal fusion are determined by a child's skeletal age (biologic age), children with constitutional growth delay are often referred to as "late bloomers."

At the usual age for puberty, these children continue to grow at a prepubertal rate appropriate for their biologic stage of development. Natural slowing of linear growth just before onset of puberty may be exaggerated, emphasizing the difference in size from peers who are accelerating in growth. The timing of the pubertal growth spurt is delayed, and the spurt may be prolonged with a lower peak height velocity. In patients with both constitutional growth delay and familial short stature, the degree of growth retardation may appear more severe, but the adult height is appropriate for the genetic background.

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Physical

Physical examination findings in patients with constitutional growth delay are essentially normal, with the exception of immature appearance for age. Body proportions may reflect the delay in growth. During childhood, the upper-to-lower body ratio may be greater than normal, reflecting more infantile proportions. In adults, the ratio is often reduced (ie, < 1 in whites, < 0.9 in blacks) as a result of the longer period of leg (long bone) growth.[3]

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Causes

Constitutional growth delay is thought to be inherited from multiple genes from both parents. The strong role of heredity is reflected in the 60-90% likelihood of this growth pattern in a family member of the same or opposite sex. A delay in the reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary pulse generator results in a later onset of puberty.[3]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Pamela A Clark, MD Consulting Staff, McLeod Physician Associates; Consulting Staff, McLeod Pediatric Subspecialists

Pamela A Clark, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Pediatric Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Barry B Bercu, MD Professor, Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, All Children's Hospital

Barry B Bercu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Medical Association, American Pediatric Society, Association of Clinical Scientists, Endocrine Society, Florida Medical Association, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Society for Pediatric Research, Society for the Study of Reproduction, American Federation for Clinical Research, Pituitary Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD Former Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Southern Medical Association, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Arlan L Rosenbloom, MD Adjunct Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine; Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics; Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology

Arlan L Rosenbloom, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Epidemiology, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Florida Chapter of The American Academy of Pediatrics, Florida Pediatric Society, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
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  2. Banerjee I, Hanson D, Perveen R, Whatmore A, Black GC, Clayton PE. Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is not commonly associated with mutations in the acid labile subunit gene. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Apr. 158(4):473-7. [Medline].

  3. Rogol AD, Hayden GF. Etiologies and early diagnosis of short stature and growth failure in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2014 May. 164(5 Suppl):S1-14.e6. [Medline].

  4. Gunn KC, Cutfield WS, Hofman PL, Jefferies CA, Albert BB, Gunn AJ. Constitutional delay influences the auxological response to growth hormone treatment in children with short stature and growth hormone sufficiency. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 14. 4:6061. [Medline].

  5. Rohayem J, Nieschlag E, Kliesch S, Zitzmann M. Inhibin B, AMH, but not INSL3, IGF1 or DHEAS support differentiation between constitutional delay of growth and puberty and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Andrology. 2015 Sep. 3 (5):882-7. [Medline].

  6. McGrath N, O'Grady MJ. Aromatase inhibitors for short stature in male children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 8. 10:CD010888. [Medline].

  7. Harrington J, Palmert MR. Clinical review: Distinguishing constitutional delay of growth and puberty from isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: critical appraisal of available diagnostic tests. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Sep. 97(9):3056-67. [Medline].

  8. Krebs A, Moske-Eick O, Doerfer J, Roemer-Pergher C, van der Werf-Grohmann N, Schwab KO. Marked increase of final height by long-term aromatase inhibition in a boy with idiopathic short stature. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2012. 25(5-6):581-5. [Medline].

  9. Cook DM, Rose SR. A review of guidelines for use of growth hormone in pediatric and transition patients. Pituitary. 2012 Sep. 15 (3):301-10. [Medline].

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  11. Doneray H, Orbak Z. Association between bone turnover markers and bone mineral density in puberty and constitutional delay of growth and puberty. West Indian Med J. 2008 Jan. 57(1):33-9. [Medline].

  12. Krupa B, Miazgowski T. Bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover in boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May. 90(5):2828-30. [Medline].

  13. Leschek EW, Rose SR, Yanovski JA, et al. Effect of growth hormone treatment on adult height in peripubertal children with idiopathic short stature: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jul. 89(7):3140-8. [Medline].

  14. Miller BS, Zimmerman D. Idiopathic short stature in children. Pediatr Ann. 2004 Mar. 33(3):177-81. [Medline].

  15. Poyrazoglu S, Gunoz H, Darendeliler F, Saka N, Bundak R, Bas F. Constitutional delay of growth and puberty: from presentation to final height. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Feb. 18(2):171-9. [Medline].

  16. Racine MS, Symons KV, Foster CM, Barkan AL. Augmentation of growth hormone secretion after testosterone treatment in boys with constitutional delay of growth and adolescence: evidence against an increase in hypothalamic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Jul 2004. 89(7):3326-31. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Yap F, Hogler W, Briody J, et al. The skeletal phenotype of men with previous constitutional delay of puberty. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Sep 2004. 89(9):4306-11. [Medline]. [Full Text].

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Comparison of the growth patterns between idiopathic short stature and constitutional growth delay.
 
 
 
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