Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Workup

  • Author: William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH; Chief Editor: Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD  more...
Updated: Sep 14, 2015

Approach Considerations

The need for and extent of laboratory studies vary, depending on the general state of the child's health. For most children, only urine testing for glucose and blood glucose measurement are required for a diagnosis of diabetes. Other conditions associated with diabetes require several tests at diagnosis and at later review.

Urine glucose

A positive urine glucose test suggests, but is not diagnostic for, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Diagnosis must be confirmed by test results showing elevated blood glucose levels. Test urine of ambulatory patients for ketones at the time of diagnosis. See Urinalysis.

Urine ketones

Ketones in the urine confirm lipolysis and gluconeogenesis, which are normal during periods of starvation. With hyperglycemia and heavy glycosuria, ketonuria is a marker of insulin deficiency and potential DKA.

Islet cell antibodies

Islet cell antibodies may be present at diagnosis but are not needed to diagnose type 1 diabetes mellitus. Islet cell antibodies are nonspecific markers of autoimmune disease of the pancreas and have been found in as many as 5% of unaffected children. Other autoantibody markers of type 1 diabetes are known, including insulin antibodies. Additional antibodies against islet cells are recognized (eg, those against glutamate decarboxylase [GAD antibodies]), but these may not be available for routine testing.

Thyroid function tests and antithyroid antibodies

Because early hypothyroidism has few easily identifiable clinical signs in children, children with type 1 diabetes mellitus may have undiagnosed thyroid disease. Untreated thyroid disease may interfere with diabetes management. Typically, hypothyroid children present with reduced insulin requirements and increased episodes of hypoglycemia; hyperthyroid children have increased insulin needs and a tendency toward hyperglycemia. Caution, therefore, is needed when initiating treatment as insulin requirements can change quite quickly. Check thyroid function regularly (every 2-5 years or annually if thyroid antibodies are present). Antithyroid antibody tests indicate the risk of present or potential thyroid disease.

Antigliadin antibodies

Some children with type 1 diabetes mellitus may have or may develop celiac disease. Positive antigliadin antibodies, especially specific antibodies (eg, antiendomysial, antitransglutaminase) are important risk markers. If antibody tests are positive, a jejunal biopsy is required to confirm or refute a diagnosis of celiac disease. Once celiac disease is confirmed, the individual should remain on a gluten-free diet for life.

Lipid profile

Lipid profiles are usually abnormal at diagnosis because of increased circulating triglycerides caused by gluconeogenesis. Apart from hypertriglyceridemia, primary lipid disorders rarely result in diabetes. Hyperlipidemia with poor metabolic control is common but returns to normal as metabolic control improves.

Urinary albumin

Beginning at age 12 years, perform an annual urinalysis to test for a slightly increased AER, referred to as microalbuminuria, which is an indicator of risk for diabetic nephropathy.

Renal function tests

If the child is otherwise healthy, renal function tests are typically not required.


Blood Glucose

Apart from transient illness-induced or stress-induced hyperglycemia, a random whole-blood glucose concentration of more than 200 mg/dL (11 mmol/L) is diagnostic for diabetes, as is a fasting whole-blood glucose concentration that exceeds 120 mg/dL (7 mmol/L). In the absence of symptoms, the physician must confirm these results on a different day. Most children with diabetes detected because of symptoms have a blood glucose level of at least 250 mg/dL (14 mmol/L).

Blood glucose tests using capillary blood samples, reagent sticks, and blood glucose meters are the usual methods for monitoring day-to-day diabetes control.


Glycated Hemoglobin

Glycosylated hemoglobin derivatives (HbA1a, HbA1b, HbA1c) are the result of a nonenzymatic reaction between glucose and hemoglobin. A strong correlation exists between average blood glucose concentrations over an 8- to 10-week period and the proportion of glycated hemoglobin. The percentage of HbA1c is more commonly measured. (Measurement of HbA1c levels is the best method for medium-term to long-term diabetic control monitoring.)

An international expert committee composed of appointed representatives of the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, and others recommended HbA1c assay for diagnosing diabetes mellitus.[2] The committee recommended that an HbA1c level of 6.5% or higher be considered indicative of diabetes, with diagnostic confirmation being provided through repeat testing (unless clinical symptoms are present and the glucose level is >200 mg/dL). Glucose measurement should remain the choice for diagnosing pregnant women or be used if HbA1c assay is unavailable. The committee cited the following advantages of HbA1c testing over glucose measurement:

  • Captures long-term glucose exposure
  • Has less biologic variability
  • Does not require fasting or timed samples
  • Is currently used to guide management decisions

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) found that patients with HbA1c levels of around 7% had the best outcomes relative to long-term complications. Most clinicians aim for HbA1c values of 7-9%. Values of less than 7% are associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia; values of more than 9% carry an increased risk of long-term complications. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) recommends a target level of 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) or less for all children.

Normal HbA1c values vary according to the laboratory method used, but nondiabetic children generally have values in the low-normal range. At diagnosis, diabetic children unmistakably have results above the upper limit of the reference range. Check HbA1c levels every 3 months.

Many different methods of measuring HbA1c are available, and the variations between the different assays can be considerable and unpredictable.

A working group was established in 1995 by the International Federation of Clinical Chemists (IFCC) to find a better method of standardizing the various assays.[39] This resulted in a global standard that is gradually being implemented. As a result, HbA1c will be reported as millimole per mole (mmol/mol) instead of as a percentage. The current target range of 7-9% is set to be replaced with values of 53-75 mmol/mol.



Microalbuminuria is the first evidence of nephropathy. The exact definition varies slightly between nations, but an increased AER is commonly defined as a ratio of first morning-void urinary albumin levels to creatinine levels that exceeds 10 mg/mmol, or as a timed, overnight AER of more than 20 mcg/min but less than 200 mcg/min. Early microalbuminuria may resolve. Glomerular hyperfiltration occurs, as do abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane and glomeruli. Regular urine screening for microalbuminuria provides opportunities for early identification and treatment to prevent renal failure.


Oral Glucose Tolerance Test

Although unnecessary in the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) can exclude the diagnosis of diabetes when hyperglycemia or glycosuria are recognized in the absence of typical causes (eg, intercurrent illness, steroid therapy) or when the patient's condition includes renal glucosuria (see Glucose).

Obtain a fasting blood sugar level, then administer an oral glucose load (2 g/kg for children aged < 3 y, 1.75 g/kg for children aged 3-10 y [max 50 g], or 75 g for children aged >10 y). Check the blood glucose concentration again after 2 hours. A fasting whole-blood glucose level higher than 120 mg/dL (6.7 mmol/L) or a 2-hour value higher than 200 mg/dL (11 mmol/L) indicates diabetes. However, mild elevations may not indicate diabetes when the patient has no symptoms and no diabetes-related antibodies.

A modified OGTT can also be used to identify cases of MODY (which often present as type 1 diabetes) if, in addition to blood glucose levels, insulin or c-peptide (insulin precursor) levels are measured at fasting, 30 minutes, and 2 hours. Individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus cannot produce more than tiny amounts of insulin. People with MODY or type 2 diabetes mellitus show variable and substantial insulin production in the presence of hyperglycemia.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH Consultant Paediatric Diabetologist, The Great North Children's Hospital, The Royal Victoria Infirmary; Honorary Clinical Lecturer, University of Newcastle upon Tyne; Honorary Clinical Lecturer, University of Durham, UK

William H Lamb, MD, MBBS, FRCP(Edin), FRCP, FRCPCH is a member of the following medical societies: British Medical Association, Royal College of Physicians, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, British Society of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Eli Lily and Company.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

George P Chrousos, MD, FAAP, MACP, MACE, FRCP(London) Professor and Chair, First Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Greece; UNESCO Chair on Adolescent Health Care, University of Athens, Greece

George P Chrousos, MD, FAAP, MACP, MACE, FRCP(London) is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Physicians, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of American Physicians, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, American College of Endocrinology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD Former Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Southern Medical Association, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Arlan L Rosenbloom, MD Adjunct Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine; Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics; Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology

Arlan L Rosenbloom, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Epidemiology, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Florida Chapter of The American Academy of Pediatrics, Florida Pediatric Society, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


The author would like to thank Dr. Tim Cheetham and Dr. Debbie Matthews, Colleagues at the Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, for reading through the manuscript and for years of support.

  1. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan. 33 Suppl 1:S62-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  2. [Guideline] International Expert Committee Report on the Role of the A1C Assay in the Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jun 5. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  3. Standards of medical care in diabetes--2011. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan. 34 Suppl 1:S11-61. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  4. Pihoker C, Forsander G, Wolfsdorf J, Klingensmith GJ. The delivery of ambulatory diabetes care to children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:58-70. [Medline].

  5. Rosenbloom AL, Silverstein JH, Amemiya S, Zeitler P, Klingensmith GJ. Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:17-32. [Medline].

  6. Porter JR, Barrett TG. Acquired non-type 1 diabetes in childhood: subtypes, diagnosis, and management. Arch Dis Child. 2004 Dec. 89(12):1138-44. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  7. Barrett TG. Differential diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: which genetic syndromes need to be considered?. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007 Oct. 8 Suppl 6:15-23. [Medline].

  8. Hattersley A, Bruining J, Shield J, Njolstad P, Donaghue KC. The diagnosis and management of monogenic diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:33-42. [Medline].

  9. Clarke W, Jones T, Rewers A, Dunger D, Klingensmith GJ. Assessment and management of hypoglycemia in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:134-45. [Medline].

  10. Hershey T, Perantie DC, Warren SL, et al. Frequency and timing of severe hypoglycemia affects spatial memory in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 Oct. 28(10):2372-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  11. Patiño-Fernández AM, Delamater AM, Applegate EB, et al. Neurocognitive functioning in preschool-age children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010 Sep. 11(6):424-30. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  12. d'Annunzio G, Malvezzi F, Vitali L, Barone C, Giacchero R, Klersy C, et al. A 3-19-year follow-up study on diabetic retinopathy in patients diagnosed in childhood and treated with conventional therapy. Diabet Med. 1997 Nov. 14(11):951-8. [Medline].

  13. Jones CA, Leese GP, Kerr S, et al. Development and progression of microalbuminuria in a clinic sample of patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Jun. 78(6):518-23. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  14. Barkai L, Madacsy L. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Arch Dis Child. 1995 Dec. 73(6):515-8. [Medline].

  15. Mohn A, Di Michele S, Di Luzio R, et al. The effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic control in children andadolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2002 Jan. 19(1):70-3. [Medline].

  16. Barera G, Bonfanti R, Viscardi M, et al. Occurrence of celiac disease after onset of type 1 diabetes: a 6-year prospectivelongitudinal study. Pediatrics. 2002 May. 109(5):833-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Infante JR, Rosenbloom AL, Silverstein JH, et al. Changes in frequency and severity of limited joint mobility in children withtype 1 diabetes mellitus between 1976-78 and 1998. J Pediatr. 2001 Jan. 138(1):33-7. [Medline].

  18. Gloyn AL, Pearson ER, Antcliff JF, Proks P, Bruining GJ, Slingerland AS. Activating mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel subunit Kir6.2 and permanent neonatal diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 29. 350(18):1838-49. [Medline].

  19. Patterson CC, Carson DJ, Hadden DR. Epidemiology of childhood IDDM in Northern Ireland 1989-1994: low incidence in areas with highest population density and most household crowding. Northern Ireland Diabetes Study Group. Diabetologia. 1996 Sep. 39(9):1063-9. [Medline].

  20. Hyoty H, Hiltunen M, Knip M, et al. A prospective study of the role of coxsackie B and other enterovirus infections in the pathogenesis of IDDM. Childhood Diabetes in Finland (DiMe) Study Group. Diabetes. 1995 Jun. 44(6):652-7. [Medline].

  21. Mohr SB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Garland FC. The association between ultraviolet B irradiance, vitamin D status and incidence rates of type 1 diabetes in 51 regions worldwide. Diabetologia. 2008 Aug. 51(8):1391-8. [Medline].

  22. Dabelea D, Bell RA, D'Agostino RB Jr, Imperatore G, Johansen JM. Incidence of diabetes in youth in the United States. JAMA. 2007 Jun 27. 297(24):2716-24. [Medline].

  23. Silink M. Childhood diabetes: a global perspective. Horm Res. 2002. 57 Suppl 1:1-5. [Medline].

  24. Harjutsalo V, Forsblom C, Groop PH. Time trends in mortality in patients with type 1 diabetes: nationwide population based cohort study. BMJ. 2011 Sep 8. 343:d5364. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  25. Soltesz G, Patterson CC, Dahlquist G. Worldwide childhood type 1 diabetes incidence--what can we learn from epidemiology?. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007 Oct. 8 Suppl 6:6-14. [Medline].

  26. Craig ME, Hattersley A, Donaghue KC. Definition, epidemiology and classification of diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:3-12. [Medline].

  27. Felner EI, Klitz W, Ham M, Lazaro AM, Stastny P, Dupont B. Genetic interaction among three genomic regions creates distinct contributions to early- and late-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatr Diabetes. 2005 Dec. 6(4):213-20. [Medline].

  28. DiLiberti JH, Lorenz RA. Long-term trends in childhood diabetes mortality: 1968-1998. Diabetes Care. 2001 Aug. 24(8):1348-52. [Medline].

  29. Dahlquist G, Kallen B. Mortality in childhood-onset type 1 diabetes: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2005 Oct. 28(10):2384-7. [Medline].

  30. Edge JA, Ford-Adams ME, Dunger DB. Causes of death in children with insulin dependent diabetes 1990-96. Arch Dis Child. 1999 Oct. 81(4):318-23. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  31. Koltin D, Daneman D. Dead-in-bed syndrome - a diabetes nightmare. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Oct. 9(5):504-7. [Medline].

  32. DCCT Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1993 Sep 30. 329(14):977-86. [Medline].

  33. Gallego PH, Wiltshire E, Donaghue KC. Identifying children at particular risk of long-term diabetes complications. Pediatr Diabetes. 2007 Oct. 8 Suppl 6:40-8. [Medline].

  34. Donaghue KC, Chiarelli F, Trotta D, Allgrove J, Dahl-Jorgensen K. Microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:195-203. [Medline].

  35. Kordonouri O, Maguire AM, Knip M, et al. Other complications and associated conditions with diabetes in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:204-10. [Medline].

  36. Swift PG. Diabetes education in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:51-7. [Medline].

  37. Brink S, Laffel L, Likitmaskul S, et al. Sick day management in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:146-53. [Medline].

  38. CDC. National Diabetes Fact Sheet. United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at

  39. [Guideline] Mosca A, Goodall I, Hoshino T, et al. Global standardization of glycated hemoglobin measurement: the position of the IFCC Working Group. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007. 45(8):1077-80. [Medline].

  40. Nansel TR, Iannotti RJ, Liu A. Clinic-integrated behavioral intervention for families of youth with type 1 diabetes: randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics. 2012 Apr. 129(4):e866-73. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  41. Clar C, Waugh N, Thomas S. Routine hospital admission versus out-patient or home care in children at diagnosisof type 1 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003. CD004099. [Medline].

  42. Uusitalo U, Liu X, Yang J, et al, for the TEDDY Study Group. Probiotic use in infancy and islet autoimmunity in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study [abstract 170]. Presented at: European Association for the Study of Diabetes 2014 Meeting; Vienna, Austria; September 18, 2014. [Full Text].

  43. McCall B. Probiotics cut autoimmunity 33% in infants at risk for diabetes. Medscape Medical News. September 19, 2014. [Full Text].

  44. Smart C, Aslander-van Vliet E, Waldron S. Nutritional management in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:100-17. [Medline].

  45. Robertson K, Adolfsson P, Scheiner G, Hanas R, Riddell MC. Exercise in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:154-68. [Medline].

  46. Kaufman FR, Halvorson M, Carpenter S. Association between diabetes control and visits to a multidisciplinary pediatric diabetes clinic. Pediatrics. 1999 May. 103(5 Pt 1):948-51. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  47. Silverstein J, Klingensmith G, Copeland K, et al. Care of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a statement of the AmericanDiabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan. 28(1):186-212. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  48. Pihoker C, Forsander G, Wolfsdorf J, Klingensmith GJ. The delivery of ambulatory diabetes care: structures, processes, and outcomes of ambulatory diabetes care. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008 Dec. 9(6):609-20. [Medline].

  49. Bangstad HJ, Danne T, Deeb L, Jarosz-Chobot P, Urakami T, Hanas R. Insulin treatment in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:82-99. [Medline].

  50. Danne T, Deiss D, Hopfenmuller W, et al. Experience with insulin analogues in children. Horm Res. 2002. 57 Suppl 1:46-53. [Medline].

  51. Siebenhofer A, Plank J, Berghold A, et al. Short acting insulin analogues versus regular human insulin in patients withdiabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004. CD003287. [Medline].

  52. FDA. Early Communication About Safety of Lantus (insulin Glargine). US Food and Drug Administration. Available at Accessed: July 1, 2009.

  53. Willi SM, Planton J, Egede L, Schwarz S. Benefits of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in children with type1 diabetes. J Pediatr. 2003 Dec. 143(6):796-801. [Medline].

  54. Mortensen HB, Hougaard P. Comparison of metabolic control in a cross-sectional study of 2,873 children and adolescents with IDDM from 18 countries. The Hvidore Study Group on Childhood Diabetes [published erratum appears in Diabetes Care 1997 Jul;20(7):1216]. Diabetes Care. 1997 May. 20(5):714-20. [Medline].

  55. Danne T, Mortensen HB, Hougaard P, et al. Persistent differences among centers over 3 years in glycemic control and hypoglycemiain a study of 3,805 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes from the Hvidøre Study Group. Diabetes Care. 2001 Aug. 24(8):1342-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  56. Feutren G, Papoz L, Assan R, et al. Cyclosporin increases the rate and length of remissions in insulin-dependent diabetes of recent onset. Results of a multicentre double-blind trial. Lancet. 1986 Jul 19. 2(8499):119-24. [Medline].

  57. Rewers M, Gottlieb P. Immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes: human trials and a look into the future. Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct. 32(10):1769-82. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  58. Bach JF. Anti-CD3 antibodies for type 1 diabetes: beyond expectations. Lancet. 2011 Aug 6. 378(9790):459-60. [Medline].

  59. Delamater AM. Psychological care of children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009 Sep. 10 Suppl 12:175-84. [Medline].

  60. Tucker ME. Disordered Eating Common in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes. Available at Accessed: September 6, 2013.

  61. Wisting L, Frøisland DH, Skrivarhaug T, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Rø O. Disturbed Eating Behavior and Omission of Insulin in Adolescents Receiving Intensified Insulin Treatment: A nationwide population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2013 Aug 20. [Medline].

  62. Riquetto AD, de Noronha RM, Matsuo EM, et al. Thyroid function and autoimmunity in children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2015 Jul 17. [Medline].

  63. Virk SA, Donaghue KC, Wong TY, Craig ME. Interventions for Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 1 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2015 Jul 23. [Medline].

  64. Jefferies CA, Nakhla M, Derraik JG, Gunn AJ, Daneman D, Cutfield WS. Preventing Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2015 Aug. 62 (4):857-71. [Medline].

Possible mechanism for development of type 1 diabetes.
The effects of insulin deficiency.
Representation of activity profile of some available insulins.
Some of the available insulin injection devices.
A selection of available insulin pumps.
Some of the available blood glucose monitors.
Diabetes Sick Day Rules.
Taking Diabetes Back to School.
Carbs for Kids-Count Them In: The Constant Carbohydrates Diet.
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.