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Hyperinsulinism Treatment & Management

  • Author: Sunil Sinha, MD; Chief Editor: Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD  more...
 
Updated: Dec 16, 2015
 

Medical Care

Maintaining normoglycemia is essential to prevent neurologic sequelae. Infants with hyperinsulinism are at higher risk of neurologic sequelae than infants with hypoglycemia from other causes. Because insulin inhibits lipolysis and ketogenesis, hyperinsulinism results in the paucity of alternative fuel used by the brain.

The glucose output from the liver is 2-3 mg/kg/min in adults. Infants and children have a greater need for glucose and have a maximal output estimated at 5-7 mg/kg/min. Patients with hyperinsulinism may require very high glucose infusion rates (20-30 mg/kg/min) to maintain normoglycemia. Attempts should be made to keep blood glucose levels at 60 mg/dL or higher at all times.

Healthy neonates and infants can fast for 6 hours without experiencing hypoglycemia. This equates to skipping one feeding in the infant who is fed ad libitum.

Medications should be administered to suppress insulin secretion or stimulate glucose release.

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Surgical Care

Gastrostomy tube

Gastrostomy tube placement may be indicated in extreme cases to administer food if the infant is unable to handle the increased glucose requirements.

Partial or near-total pancreatectomy

Pancreatectomy is reserved for infants who fail to establish adequate control on medical therapy.

Although most surgeons initially remove 95% of the pancreas, a near-total (98%) pancreatectomy appears to be most effective in preventing hypoglycemia in the newborn period for those with diffuse potassium channel disease (SUR1 or Kir6.2 mutations). Remarkably, the elevated lifelong risk of diabetes mellitus is more closely related to the intrinsic error in regulated insulin release, rather than to the extent of pancreatectomy.[15] One recent study showed almost 94% of focal hyperinsulinism cases required no further treatment, versus 41% with diffuse hyperinsulinism that showed continued hypoglycemia postoperatively.[16]

Close monitoring of blood glucose levels is indicated to ensure glycemic control and to minimize hypoglycemia. If hypoglycemia persists, medical therapy should be reattempted. If medical therapy is unsuccessful, a second pancreatectomy may be indicated. The authors' experience indicates that clinically significant pancreatic regrowth can occur in infants after near-total pancreatectomy. A Whipple procedure is unwarranted because it cannot guarantee remission of diffuse disease.

Limited pancreatectomy is indicated for patients with focal disease.

Complications include pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, and injury to the common bile duct.

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Consultations

See the list below:

  • Pediatric endocrinologist
  • Pediatric surgeon
  • Neonatologist
  • Geneticist (if family history is present or suspected)
  • Closest tertiary referral center (academic children's hospital) for possible enrollment in clinical research protocols
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Diet

Frequent feedings by gastrostomy help maintain euglycemia but do not prevent the need for intravenous dextrose administration before surgery.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Sunil Sinha, MD Assistant Professor, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Sunil Sinha, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Kenneth Kwok-Chun Chan, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Pediatrics, Andover Pediatrics

Kenneth Kwok-Chun Chan, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ab Sadeghi-Nejad, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tufts Medical Center; Professor of Pediatrics, Tufts University School of Medicine

Ab Sadeghi-Nejad, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Massachusetts Medical Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

George P Chrousos, MD, FAAP, MACP, MACE, FRCP(London) Professor and Chair, First Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Greece; UNESCO Chair on Adolescent Health Care, University of Athens, Greece

George P Chrousos, MD, FAAP, MACP, MACE, FRCP(London) is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Physicians, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Clinical Investigation, Association of American Physicians, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, American College of Endocrinology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD Former Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Southern Medical Association, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Thomas A Wilson, MD Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Chief and Program Director, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Department of Pediatrics, The School of Medicine at Stony Brook University Medical Center

Thomas A Wilson, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Robert J Ferry Jr, MD Le Bonheur Chair of Excellence in Endocrinology, Professor and Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Robert J Ferry Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Diabetes Association, American Medical Association, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, and Texas Pediatric Society

Disclosure: Eli Lilly & Co Grant/research funds Investigator; MacroGenics, Inc Grant/research funds Investigator; Ipsen, SA (formerly Tercica, Inc) Grant/research funds Investigator; NovoNordisk SA Grant/research funds Investigator; Diamyd Grant/research funds Investigator; Bristol-Myers-Squibb Grant/research funds Other; Amylin Other; Pfizer Grant/research funds Other; Takeda Grant/research funds Other

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Mechanisms of insulin secretion.
 
 
 
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