Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Repetitive Head Injury Syndrome Medication

  • Author: David Xavier Cifu, MD; Chief Editor: Craig C Young, MD  more...
Updated: Mar 27, 2014

Medication Summary

Care should be used when instituting therapy with medications that potentially have sedating effects, because sedation may complicate the monitoring of a patient with a brain injury. Some medications that can have significant sedating effects on such patients include H2 blockers (eg, ranitidine, famotidine), diphenhydramine, narcotic pain relievers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, and seizure medications.

Some medications may improve the patient's focus and alertness. A few of these medications are discussed below. In addition to the agents that may enhance thinking skills, aggressive management of specific symptoms is also warranted, including insomnia (trazodone), headaches (butalbital, aspirin, and caffeine [Fiorinal]; isometheptene mucate, dichloralphenazone, and acetaminophen [Midrin]; acetaminophen; NSAIDs; local agents), dizziness (meclizine, buspirone, vestibular programs, liberatory technique), and depression (cognitive behavioral therapy, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]).


CNS Stimulants

Class Summary

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are used to treat the hypoarousal and poor initiative often seen in patients with brain injuries.

Methylphenidate (Ritalin, Ritalin SR)


Although most notably used in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this agent often helps with hypoarousal. Frequently the first drug used in patients with brain injury.

Not used as often in children with brain injury; when used, administer as in children with ADHD.

Administered in morning and at noon before a therapy session to facilitate stimulant effect and increase attention to tasks. If no response is achieved, can be discontinued and another medication can be used.


Anti-Parkinson Agents

Class Summary

Anti-Parkinson medications have been useful in patients with brain injuries because these drugs increase their arousal and attention to tasks.

Amantadine (Symmetrel)


Unknown mechanism of action; may release dopamine from remaining dopaminergic terminals in patients with Parkinson disease or from other central sites. Less effective than levodopa in treating Parkinson disease; slightly more effective than anticholinergic agents.

Carbidopa/levodopa (Sinemet)


May increase alertness and attention to task in patients with brain injury.


Central Nervous System Stimulant, Nonamphetamine

Class Summary

Nonamphetamine CNS agents have actions that are similar to sympathomimetic agents.

Modafinil (Provigil)


May exert stimulant effects by decreasing GABA-mediated neurotransmission. Has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents. Improves wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime hypersomnolence. Has been used in narcolepsy and primary hypersomnia. Mechanism of action is unclear.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

David Xavier Cifu, MD The Herman J Flax, MD, Professor and Chairman, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine; National Director, PM&R Services, Department of Veterans Affairs

David Xavier Cifu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Brain Injury Association of America, American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine, American Medical Association, Association of Academic Physiatrists, National Stroke Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


David F Drake, MD Bavaria MEDDAC Medical Evaluation Board Physician, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation/Pain and EMG Consultant

David F Drake, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiatric Association of Spine, Sports and Occupational Rehabilitation, American College of Sports Medicine, International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Brian D Steinmetz, DO Resident, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Virginia Commonwealth University

Brian D Steinmetz, DO is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American Osteopathic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Russell D White, MD Clinical Professor of Medicine, Clinical Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Community and Family Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Truman Medical Center-Lakewood

Russell D White, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American College of Sports Medicine, American Diabetes Association, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Craig C Young, MD Professor, Departments of Orthopedic Surgery and Community and Family Medicine, Medical Director of Sports Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin

Craig C Young, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Gerard A Malanga, MD Founder and Partner, New Jersey Sports Medicine, LLC and New Jersey Regenerative Institute; Director of Research, Atlantic Health; Clinical Professor, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School; Fellow, American College of Sports Medicine

Gerard A Malanga, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, North American Spine Society, International Spine Intervention Society, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, American College of Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Cephalon for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Endo for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Genzyme for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Prostakan for speaking and teaching; Received consulting fee from Pfizer for speaking and teaching.


Invaluable assistance in the preparation of this manuscript was received from Ingrid A. Prosser, MD.

  1. Boden BP, Tacchetti RL, Cantu RC, Knowles SB, Mueller FO. Catastrophic head injuries in high school and college football players. Am J Sports Med. 2007 Jul. 35(7):1075-81. [Medline].

  2. Pellman EJ, Viano DC, Casson IR, Arfken C, Feuer H. Concussion in professional football: players returning to the same game--part 7. Neurosurgery. 2005. 56(1):79-90; discussion 90-2. [Medline].

  3. Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, Bailes J, et al. Recurrent concussion and risk of depression in retired professional football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007 Jun. 39(6):903-9. [Medline].

  4. Cantu RC. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in the National Football League. Neurosurgery. 2007 Aug. 61(2):223-5. [Medline].

  5. Omalu BI, DeKosky ST, Hamilton RL, et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a national football league player: part II. Neurosurgery. 2006 Nov. 59(5):1086-92; discussion 1092-3. [Medline].

  6. Omalu BI, DeKosky ST, Minster RL, et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in a National Football League player. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jul. 57(1):128-34; discussion 128-34. [Medline].

  7. Collins MW, Grindel SH, Lovell MR, et al. Relationship between concussion and neuropsychological performance in college football players. JAMA. 1999 Sep 8. 282(10):964-70. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  8. McCrory P, Makdissi M, Davis G, Collie A. Value of neuropsychological testing after head injuries in football. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Aug. 39(suppl 1):i58-63. [Medline].

  9. Guskiewicz KM, McCrea M, Marshall SW, et al. Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study. JAMA. 2003 Nov 19. 290(19):2549-55. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  10. Mueller FO. Fatalities from head and cervical spine injuries occurring in tackle football: 50 years' experience. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):169-82. [Medline].

  11. Maddocks DL, Saling MM, Dicker GD. A note on the normative data for a test sensitive to concussion in Australian Rules footballers. Aust Psychol. 1995. 30:125-7.

  12. Ryan AJ. Intracranial injuries resulting from boxing. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):155-68. [Medline].

  13. Kaste M, Kuurne T, Vilkki J,. Is chronic brain damage in boxing a hazard of the past?. Lancet. 1982 Nov 27. 2(8309):1186-8. [Medline].

  14. Beaussart M, Beaussart-Boulenge L. "Experimental" study of cerebral concussion in 123 amateur boxers, by clinical examination and EEG before and immediately after fights. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1970 Nov. 29(5):530. [Medline].

  15. Johnson J. Organic psychosyndromes due to boxing. Br J Psychiatry. 1969 Jan. 115(518):45-53. [Medline].

  16. Matser EJ, Kessels AG, Lezak MD, Jordan BD, Troost J. Neuropsychological impairment in amateur soccer players. JAMA. 1999 Sep 8. 282(10):971-3. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Boden BP, Kirkendall DT, Garrett WE Jr. Concussion incidence in elite college soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 1998 Mar-Apr. 26(2):238-41. [Medline].

  18. Jordan SE, Green GA, Galanty HL, Mandelbaum BR, Jabour BA. Acute and chronic brain injury in United States National Team soccer players. Am J Sports Med. 1996 Mar-Apr. 24(2):205-10. [Medline].

  19. Tysvaer AT, Storli OV, Bachen NI. Soccer injuries to the brain. A neurologic and electroencephalographic study of former players. Acta Neurol Scand. 1989 Aug. 80(2):151-6. [Medline].

  20. Daniel JC, Olesniewicz MH, Reeves DL, et al. Repeated measures of cognitive processing efficiency in adolescent athletes: implications for monitoring recovery from concussion. Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol. 1999 Jul. 12(3):167-9. [Medline].

  21. Vagnozzi R, Tavazzi B, Signoretti S, et al. Temporal window of metabolic brain vulnerability to concussions: mitochondrial-related impairment--part I. Neurosurgery. 2007 Aug. 61(2):379-88; discussion 388-9. [Medline].

  22. Tavazzi B, Vagnozzi R, Signoretti S, et al. Temporal window of metabolic brain vulnerability to concussions: oxidative and nitrosative stresses--part II. Neurosurgery. 2007 Aug. 61(2):390-5; discussion 395-6. [Medline].

  23. Gavett BE, Stern RA, McKee AC. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late effect of sport-related concussive and subconcussive head trauma. Clin Sports Med. 2011 Jan. 30(1):179-88, xi. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  24. Guskiewicz KM, Marshall SW, et al. Association between recurrent concussion and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players. Neurosurgery. 2005 Oct. 57(4):719-26; discussion 719-26. [Medline].

  25. Plassman BL, Havlik RJ, Steffens DC, et al. Documented head injury in early adulthood and risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Neurology. 2000 Oct 24. 55(8):1158-66. [Medline].

  26. Bower JH, Maraganore DM, Peterson BJ, McDonnell SK, Ahlskog JE, Rocca WA. Head trauma preceding PD: a case-control study. Neurology. 2003 May 27. 60(10):1610-5. [Medline].

  27. Mortimer JA, French LR, Hutton JT, Schuman LM. Head injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Neurology. 1985 Feb. 35(2):264-7. [Medline].

  28. Nemetz PN, Leibson C, Naessens JM, et al. Traumatic brain injury and time to onset of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Jan 1. 149(1):32-40. [Medline].

  29. Williams DB, Annegers JF, Kokmen E, O'Brien PC, Kurland LT. Brain injury and neurologic sequelae: a cohort study of dementia, parkinsonism, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurology. 1991 Oct. 41(10):1554-7. [Medline].

  30. McKee AC, Cantu RC, Nowinski CJ, et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2009 Jul. 68(7):709-35. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  31. Corsellis JA, Bruton CJ, Freeman-Browne D. The aftermath of boxing. Psychol Med. 1973 Aug. 3(3):270-303. [Medline].

  32. Roberts AH. Brain damage in boxers: A study of the prevalence of traumatic encephalopathy among ex-professional boxers. London: Pitman Medical & Scientific Publishing Co, Ltd; 1969.

  33. Plassman BL, Langa KM, Fisher GG, et al. Prevalence of dementia in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. Neuroepidemiology. 2007. 29(1-2):125-32. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  34. Warden D. Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006 Sep-Oct. 21(5):398-402. [Medline].

  35. Jordan BD. Chronic traumatic brain injury associated with boxing. Semin Neurol. 2000. 20(2):179-85. [Medline].

  36. Butler RJ. Neuropsychological investigation of amateur boxers. Br J Sports Med. 1994 Sep. 28(3):187-90. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  37. Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. J Intern Med. 2004 Sep. 256(3):183-94. [Medline].

  38. Meyer KS, Marion DW, Coronel H, Jaffee MS. Combat-related traumatic brain injury and its implications to military healthcare. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2010 Dec. 33(4):783-96. [Medline].

  39. McCrea M. Standardized Mental Status Testing on the Sideline After Sport-Related Concussion. J Athl Train. 2001 Sep. 36(3):274-279. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  40. Himanen L, Portin R, Isoniemi H, Helenius H, Kurki T, Tenovuo O. Longitudinal cognitive changes in traumatic brain injury: a 30-year follow-up study. Neurology. 2006 Jan 24. 66(2):187-92. [Medline].

  41. Yousem DM, Geckle RJ, Bilker WB, McKeown DA, Doty RL. Posttraumatic olfactory dysfunction: MR and clinical evaluation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996 Jun-Jul. 17(6):1171-9. [Medline].

  42. Geisler MW, Morgan CD, Covington JW, Murphy C. Neuropsychological performance and cognitive olfactory event-related brain potentials in young and elderly adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1999 Feb. 21(1):108-26. [Medline].

  43. Walker WC, McDonald SD. Does neurologic examination during inpatient rehabilitation help predict global outcome after nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury?. PM R. 2011 Jan. 3(1):6-12. [Medline].

  44. Mosimann UP, Muri RM, Burn DJ, Felblinger J, O'Brien JT, McKeith IG. Saccadic eye movement changes in Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies. Brain. 2005 Jun. 128:1267-76. [Medline].

  45. Heitger MH, Jones RD, Macleod AD, Snell DL, Frampton CM, Anderson TJ. Impaired eye movements in post-concussion syndrome indicate suboptimal brain function beyond the influence of depression, malingering or intellectual ability. Brain. 2009 Oct. 132:2850-70. [Medline].

  46. Pidcoe PE, Wetzel PA. Oculomotor tracking strategy in normal subjects with and without simulated scotoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 Jan. 47(1):169-78. [Medline].

  47. Geri GA, Martin EL, Wetzel PA. Head and eye movements in visual search using night vision goggles. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2002 Aug. 73(8):779-86. [Medline].

  48. Allan LM, Ballard CG, Burn DJ, Kenny RA. Prevalence and severity of gait disorders in Alzheimer's and non-Alzheimer's dementias. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005 Oct. 53(10):1681-7. [Medline].

  49. Scherer MR, Shelhamer MJ, Schubert MC. Characterizing high-velocity angular vestibulo-ocular reflex function in service members post-blast exposure. Exp Brain Res. 2011 Feb. 208(3):399-410. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  50. Whitney SL, Marchetti GF, Schade AI. The relationship between falls history and computerized dynamic posturography in persons with balance and vestibular disorders. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006 Mar. 87(3):402-7. [Medline].

  51. Pickett TC, Radfar-Baublitz LS, McDonald SD, Walker WC, Cifu DX. Objectively assessing balance deficits after TBI: Role of computerized posturography. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2007. 44(7):983-90. [Medline].

  52. Bulut M, Koksal O, Dogan S, et al. Tau protein as a serum marker of brain damage in mild traumatic brain injury: preliminary results. Adv Ther. 2006 Jan-Feb. 23(1):12-22. [Medline].

  53. McKee AC, Gavett BE, Stern RA, et al. TDP-43 proteinopathy and motor neuron disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2010 Sep. 69(9):918-29. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  54. Moisse K, Mepham J, Volkening K, Welch I, Hill T, Strong MJ. Cytosolic TDP-43 expression following axotomy is associated with caspase 3 activation in NFL-/- mice: support for a role for TDP-43 in the physiological response to neuronal injury. Brain Res. 2009 Nov 3. 1296:176-86. [Medline].

  55. Hu WT, Chen-Plotkin A, Grossman M, et al. Novel CSF biomarkers for frontotemporal lobar degenerations. Neurology. 2010 Dec 7. 75(23):2079-86. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  56. Geser F, Stein B, Partain M, et al. Motor neuron disease clinically limited to the lower motor neuron is a diffuse TDP-43 proteinopathy. Acta Neuropathol. 2011 Apr. 121(4):509-17. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  57. Johnson VE, Stewart W, Smith DH. Traumatic brain injury and amyloid-ß pathology: a link to Alzheimer's disease?. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2010 May. 11(5):361-70. [Medline].

  58. Lyons MJ, Goldberg J, Eisen SA, True W, Tsuang MT, Meyer JM, et al. Do genes influence exposure to trauma? A twin study of combat. Am J Med Genet. 1993 May 1. 48(1):22-7. [Medline].

  59. Toledo JB, Vanderstichele H, Figurski M, et al. Factors affecting Aß plasma levels and their utility as biomarkers in ADNI. Acta Neuropathol. 2011 Oct. 122(4):401-13. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  60. Levy S, McConville M, Lazaro GA, Averback P. Competitive ELISA studies of neural thread protein in urine in Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Lab Anal. 2007. 21(1):24-33. [Medline].

  61. Youn YC, Park KW, Han SH, Kim S. Urine neural thread protein measurements in Alzheimer disease. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2011 Jun. 12(5):372-6. [Medline].

  62. Liu Y, Liu F, Grundke-Iqbal I, Iqbal K, Gong CX. Deficient brain insulin signalling pathway in Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. J Pathol. 2011 Sep. 225(1):54-62. [Medline].

  63. Baxter LC, Caselli RJ, Johnson SC, Reiman E, Osborne D. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 affects new learning in cognitively normal individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2003 Nov. 24(7):947-52. [Medline].

  64. Haan MN, Aiello AE, West NA, Jagust WJ. C-reactive protein and rate of dementia in carriers and non carriers of Apolipoprotein APOE4 genotype. Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Dec. 29(12):1774-82. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  65. Mayeux R. Development of a national prospective study of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 1996 Fall. 10 Suppl 1:38-44. [Medline].

  66. Isoniemi H, Tenovuo O, Portin R, Himanen L, Kairisto V. Outcome of traumatic brain injury after three decades--relationship to ApoE genotype. J Neurotrauma. 2006 Nov. 23(11):1600-8. [Medline].

  67. Jordan BD, Relkin NR, Ravdin LD, Jacobs AR, Bennett A, Gandy S. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. JAMA. 1997 Jul 9. 278(2):136-40. [Medline].

  68. Amstadter AB, Nugent NR, Koenen KC. Genetics of PTSD: Fear Conditioning as a Model for Future Research. Psychiatr Ann. 2009 Jun 1. 39(6):358-367. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  69. Schulz MR, Marshall SW, Mueller FO, et al. Incidence and risk factors for concussion in high school athletes, North Carolina, 1996-1999. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 Nov 15. 160(10):937-44. [Medline].

  70. Powell JW, Barber-Foss KD. Traumatic brain injury in high school athletes. JAMA. 1999 Sep 8. 282(10):958-63. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  71. Hinton-Bayre AD, Geffen GM, et al. Concussion in contact sports: reliable change indices of impairment and recovery. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1999 Feb. 21(1):70-86. [Medline].

  72. Busse EW, Silverman AJ. Electroencephalographic changes in professional boxers. J Am Med Assoc. 1952 Aug 23. 149(17):1522-5. [Medline].

  73. Kaplan HA, Browder J. Observations on the clinical and brain wave patterns of professional boxers. J Am Med Assoc. 1954 Nov 20. 156(12):1138-44. [Medline].

  74. Cifu DX, Kaelin DL, Wall BE. Deep venous thrombosis: incidence on admission to a brain injury rehabilitation program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1996 Nov. 77(11):1182-5. [Medline].

  75. Cantu RC. Return to play guidelines after a head injury. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):45-60. [Medline].

  76. Cantu RC. Second-impact syndrome. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):37-44. [Medline].

  77. Cantu RC. Second impact syndrome: immediate management. Physician Sportsmed. 1992. 20:55-60.

  78. Kelly JP, Rosenberg JH. The development of guidelines for the management of concussion in sports. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1998 Apr. 13(2):53-65. [Medline].

  79. American Academy of Neurology. Position Statement on Sports Concussion. October 2010. Accessed November 14, 2010. [Full Text].

  80. Backman L, Jones S, Berger AK, Laukka EJ, Small BJ. Cognitive impairment in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis. Neuropsychology. 2005 Jul. 19(4):520-31. [Medline].

  81. Clarke KS. Epidemiology of athletic head injury. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):1-12. [Medline].

  82. De Beaumont L, Lassonde M, Leclerc S, Theoret H. Long-term and cumulative effects of sports concussion on motor cortex inhibition. Neurosurgery. 2007 Aug. 61(2):329-36; discussion 336-7. [Medline].

  83. De Beaumont L, Theoret H, Mongeon D, et al. Brain function decline in healthy retired athletes who sustained their last sports concussion in early adulthood. Brain. 2009 Mar. 132:695-708. [Medline].

  84. DeCarli C, Mungas D, Harvey D, et al. Memory impairment, but not cerebrovascular disease, predicts progression of MCI to dementia. Neurology. 2004 Jul 27. 63(2):220-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  85. Delaney JS, Lacroix VJ, Leclerc S, Johnston KM. Concussions during the 1997 Canadian Football League season. Clin J Sport Med. 2000 Jan. 10(1):9-14. [Medline].

  86. Devanand DP, Michaels-Marston KS, Liu X, et al. Olfactory deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment predict Alzheimer's disease at follow-up. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Sep. 157(9):1399-405. [Medline].

  87. Gaetz M, Goodman D, Weinberg H. Electrophysiological evidence for the cumulative effects of concussion. Brain Inj. 2000 Dec. 14(12):1077-88. [Medline].

  88. Golob EJ, Irimajiri R, Starr A. Auditory cortical activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: relationship to subtype and conversion to dementia. Brain. 2007 Mar. 130:740-52. [Medline].

  89. Golob EJ, Johnson JK, Starr A. Auditory event-related potentials during target detection are abnormal in mild cognitive impairment. Clin Neurophysiol. 2002 Jan. 113(1):151-61. [Medline].

  90. Gonzalez-Cuyar LF, Sonnen JA, Montine KS, Keene CD, Montine TJ. Role of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma biomarkers in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders and mild cognitive impairment. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2011 Oct. 11(5):455-63. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  91. Gosselin N, Theriault M, Leclerc S, Montplaisir J, Lassonde M. Neurophysiological anomalies in symptomatic and asymptomatic concussed athletes. Neurosurgery. 2006 Jun. 58(6):1151-61; discussion 1151-61. [Medline].

  92. Harad FT, Kerstein MD. Inadequacy of bedside clinical indicators in identifying significant intracranial injury in trauma patients. J Trauma. 1992 Mar. 32(3):359-61; discussion 361-3. [Medline].

  93. Jeong J. EEG dynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Jul. 115(7):1490-505. [Medline].

  94. Lavoie ME, Dupuis F, Johnston KM, Leclerc S, Lassonde M. Visual p300 effects beyond symptoms in concussed college athletes. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2004 Feb. 26(1):55-73. [Medline].

  95. Macciocchi SN, Barth JT, Littlefield LM. Outcome after mild head injury. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):27-36. [Medline].

  96. Masters SJ, McClean PM, Arcarese JS, et al. Skull x-ray examinations after head trauma. Recommendations by a multidisciplinary panel and validation study. N Engl J Med. 1987 Jan 8. 316(2):84-91. [Medline].

  97. McCrory P. Does second impact syndrome exist?. Clin J Sport Med. 2001 Jul. 11(3):144-9. [Medline].

  98. McCrory PR, Berkovic SF. Second impact syndrome. Neurology. 1998 Mar. 50(3):677-83. [Medline].

  99. McQuillen JB, McQuillen EN, Morrow P. Trauma, sport, and malignant cerebral edema. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1988 Mar. 9(1):12-5. [Medline].

  100. Olichney JM, Iragui VJ, Salmon DP, Riggins BR, Morris SK, Kutas M. Absent event-related potential (ERP) word repetition effects in mild Alzheimer's disease. Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Jun. 117(6):1319-30. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  101. Olichney JM, Taylor JR, Gatherwright J, et al. Patients with MCI and N400 or P600 abnormalities are at very high risk for conversion to dementia. Neurology. 2008 May 6. 70(19 Pt 2):1763-70. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  102. Qutubuddin AA, Cifu DX, Armistead-Jehle P, Carne W, McGuirk TE, Baron MS. A comparison of computerized dynamic posturography therapy to standard balance physical therapy in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a pilot study. NeuroRehabilitation. 2007. 22(4):261-5. [Medline].

  103. Slobounov S, Slobounov E, Sebastianelli W, Cao C, Newell K. Differential rate of recovery in athletes after first and second concussion episodes. Neurosurgery. 2007 Aug. 61(2):338-44; discussion 344. [Medline].

  104. Stewart DG, Cifu DX. Neuroendocrinologic management after TBI. Phys Med Rehabil Clinics N Am. 1997. 8(4):827-42.

  105. Sturmi JE, Smith C, Lombardo JA. Mild brain trauma in sports. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines. Sports Med. 1998 Jun. 25(6):351-8. [Medline].

  106. Tabert MH, Manly JJ, Liu X, et al. Neuropsychological prediction of conversion to Alzheimer disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Aug. 63(8):916-24. [Medline].

  107. Thomassen A, Juul-Jensen P, de Fine Olivarius B, Braemer J, Christensen AL. Neurological, electroencephalographic and neuropsychological examination of 53 former amateur boxers. Acta Neurol Scand. 1979 Dec. 60(6):352-62. [Medline].

  108. Vegso JJ, Lehman RC. Field evaluation and management of head and neck injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1987 Jan. 6(1):1-15. [Medline].

  109. Warren WL Jr, Bailes JE. On the field evaluation of athletic head injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jan. 17(1):13-26. [Medline].

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.