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Pediatric Growth Hormone Deficiency Follow-up

  • Author: Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Bruce Buehler, MD  more...
Updated: May 27, 2014

Further Outpatient Care

Most pediatric endocrinologists see patients who are receiving growth hormone therapy 2-4 times per year. The most important reasons for follow-up are to monitor growth progress and to adjust growth hormone dosage. Growth rate usually increases most during the first year of treatment, with an average increase of 8-10 cm/y (often called "catch-up" growth). Progressive growth slows over the next several years (ie, waning effect). A growth rate appearing to slow more than expected should prompt investigation for a medical cause (eg, hypothyroidism) or another diagnosis (eg, inflammatory bowel disease). Follow-up may also be needed to assure patient compliance with the growth hormone injections.



Although few patients experience adverse events from growth hormone therapy, the following complications have been recognized:

  • Carbohydrate metabolism: Growth hormone has an anti-insulin effect, and carbohydrate metabolism has been monitored in many clinical studies of growth hormone therapy. A review of large databases containing more than 35,000 patients on growth hormone and more than 75,000 patients with years of exposure indicates no greater incidence of type 1 diabetes than would be expected in the general population of age-matched children. One study of an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in children undergoing growth hormone therapy with risk factors for diabetes suggests that growth hormone may cause earlier expression of this condition.
  • Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri): A clear association between intracranial hypertension and growth hormone therapy is observed. The incidence appears to be about 0.001 (21 cases reported out of 19,000 patients receiving growth hormone, or 50,000 patient-years). Usually, severe headache symptoms (occasionally with vomiting) develop during the first 4 months of therapy. The risk of this complication increased in children receiving growth hormone for chronic renal insufficiency. In most cases, cessation of growth hormone therapy resolved the intracranial hypertension; the growth hormone then could be restarted at a lower dose and slowly titrated back to the usual dose.
  • Fluid homeostasis: Growth hormone affects fluid homeostasis, which may lead to edema and even carpal tunnel syndrome. These problems are more common in adults receiving growth hormone. When these occurrences become sufficiently serious to require action, stopping the growth hormone provides resolution. Restarting the growth hormone at a lower dose and slowly titrating it back to the usual dose is usually possible.
  • Skeletal and joint problems: Children receiving growth hormone therapy are more susceptible to slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). Yet children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), hypothyroidism, or renal disease seem to have increased risk for SCFE, even without growth hormone therapy. When a child receiving growth hormone therapy complains of hip or knee pain, a careful physical examination is vital, and, if warranted, hip radiography. Scoliosis progression is another skeletal-related complication of growth hormone therapy. Scoliosis relates to the rapid growth that occurs with therapy and is not a direct effect of the growth hormone. Patients with scoliosis who are treated with growth hormone should have their scoliosis monitored during therapy.
  • Prepubertal gynecomastia: Although adolescent gynecomastia is common, prepubertal gynecomastia occurs less frequently. Such cases have been reported in association with growth hormone therapy, although whether the gynecomastia is related to the growth hormone is unclear. Prepubertal gynecomastia is a benign condition that resolves without sequelae.
  • Leukemia: Several worldwide databases have been examined in response to sporadic reports of leukemia in patients undergoing growth hormone therapy. When patients with other risk factors (eg, previous history of leukemia, radiation, chemotherapy) are excluded, no increased risk of leukemia has been demonstrated. No evidence suggests an association between growth hormone therapy and leukemia in otherwise healthy children.


Since recombinant DNA–derived growth hormone became available, most children with growth hormone deficiency reach normal adult stature. Duration of therapy has the most consistent correlation with growth response to growth hormone. Initiate growth hormone therapy as early as possible and continue therapy through adolescence to ensure the best chance of achieving height potential.


Patient Education

Instruct patients and families regarding subcutaneous injection technique.

For patient education resources, see the Growth Hormone Deficiency Center, as well as Growth Hormone Deficiency, Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children, Understanding Growth Hormone Deficiency Medications, and Growth Hormone Deficiency FAQs.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD Former Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Medicine, Arkansas Children's Hospital

Stephen Kemp, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Southern Medical Association, Southern Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Barry B Bercu, MD Professor, Departments of Pediatrics, Molecular Pharmacology and Physiology, University of South Florida College of Medicine, All Children's Hospital

Barry B Bercu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Medical Association, American Pediatric Society, Association of Clinical Scientists, Endocrine Society, Florida Medical Association, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Society for Pediatric Research, Society for the Study of Reproduction, American Federation for Clinical Research, Pituitary Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Bruce Buehler, MD Professor, Department of Pediatrics and Genetics, Director RSA, University of Nebraska Medical Center

Bruce Buehler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, American Association for Physician Leadership, American Medical Association, Nebraska Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Arlan L Rosenbloom, MD Adjunct Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus of Pediatrics, University of Florida College of Medicine; Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics; Fellow of the American College of Epidemiology

Arlan L Rosenbloom, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Epidemiology, American Pediatric Society, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Florida Chapter of The American Academy of Pediatrics, Florida Pediatric Society, International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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