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Pediatric Cholecystitis Clinical Presentation

  • Author: Steven M Schwarz, MD, FAAP, FACN, AGAF; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jul 21, 2016
 

History

Symptoms of cholelithiasis often precede those of cholecystitis, although patients may have acute cholecystitis on initial presentation. Cholelithiasis causes biliary colic. Patients may complain of intermittent abdominal pain of inconsistent severity in the right upper quadrant, with possible radiation to the scapular region of the back, or pain may be diffuse or localized to the epigastrium.

Discomfort is more likely to be nonspecific in infants and younger children. Patients of this age group often present with irritability, jaundice, and acholic stools.

The classic history of patients with gallstones is postprandial right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and vomiting, but this is usually observed only in older children. Jaundice in pediatric cholelithiasis is much more frequent than in adults and can occur in the absence of gallstone obstruction of the common bile duct. Most likely, the stone causes inflammation of the ductal tissue, creating an edematous obstruction to bile flow.

Patients with chronic cholecystitis usually present similarly to patients with biliary colic, with an intermittent and indolent history of pain. Therefore, differentiation must be made on the basis of findings from the physical examination and diagnostic tests.

Acute cholecystitis pain resembles biliary colic but is usually more severe and constant, lasting for several days. The pain may begin as a vague discomfort; however, as inflammation spreads and affects the surrounding peritoneum, the pain localizes to the right upper quadrant.

Patients often report a recent history of nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and a low-grade fever. Onset of symptoms usually occurs approximately 1 week prior to presentation, although the patient may report years of the less severe symptoms of biliary colic and chronic cholecystitis.

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Physical Examination

The physical examination in acute cholecystitis usually reveals right upper quadrant tenderness. The classic triad is right upper quadrant pain, fever, and leukocytosis. The patient may have abdominal guarding and a positive Murphy sign (ie, arrest of inspiration on deep palpation of the gallbladder in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen). Omental adherence to the inflamed gallbladder combined with distension may create a palpable mass between the 9th and 10th costal cartilages.

The ductal system may become inflamed, causing cholangitis. In 50% of these cases, the examiner may find a Charcot triad. This combination of right upper quadrant pain, fever, and jaundice indicates obstruction of the common bile duct and the presence of acute cholangitis. The Charcot triad is considered to represent a medical emergency, and patients require immediate intervention.

Performing a physical examination may be the only way to distinguish biliary colic from chronic cholecystitis. In chronic cholecystitis, the patient usually complains of tenderness to palpation in the right upper quadrant; however, the differentiation may be trivial, given the high likelihood of chronic cholecystitis in the presence of recurring biliary colic.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Steven M Schwarz, MD, FAAP, FACN, AGAF Professor of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital at Downstate, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center

Steven M Schwarz, MD, FAAP, FACN, AGAF is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Nutrition, American Association for Physician Leadership, New York Academy of Medicine, Gastroenterology Research Group, American Gastroenterological Association, American Pediatric Society, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Andre Hebra, MD Chief, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Professor of Surgery and Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine; Surgeon-in-Chief, Medical University of South Carolina Children's Hospital

Andre Hebra, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, Florida Medical Association, Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons, Children's Oncology Group, International Pediatric Endosurgery Group, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Surgeons, American Medical Association, American Pediatric Surgical Association, Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons, South Carolina Medical Association, Southeastern Surgical Congress, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Carmen Cuffari, MD Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology/Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Carmen Cuffari, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Prometheus Laboratories for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Abbott Nutritionals for speaking and teaching.

Additional Contributors

Jeffrey J Du Bois, MD Chief of Children's Surgical Services, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Kaiser Permanente, Women and Children's Center, Roseville Medical Center

Jeffrey J Du Bois, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Surgeons, American Pediatric Surgical Association, California Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Melissa Miller, MD Department of Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina College of Medicine

Melissa Miller, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Medical Association and American Medical Student Association/Foundation

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Diagram illustrating the technique for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder is retracted with grasping 5-mm laparoscopic instruments, and clips are applied over the cystic duct and artery.
Photograph of a gallbladder filled with numerous small cholesterol stones.
Operative photograph illustrating the position of small (5 mm, 10 mm) trocars in the abdomen of a 12-year-old child undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. By using this technique, the surgeon can avoid large incisions and remove the gallbladder safely.
Photograph illustrating the role of endoscopic retrieval of common bile duct stones. The picture shows a balloon placed via the endoscope into the ampulla for extraction of a cholesterol stone that was occluding the common bile duct.
 
 
 
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