Supraspinatus Tendonitis Workup
- Author: Thomas M DeBerardino, MD; Chief Editor: Sherwin SW Ho, MD more...
See the list below:
Standard radiographic studies are used to rule out glenohumeral/acromioclavicular arthritis and Os Acromiale.
- Anteroposterior view of the glenohumeral joint
- Internal rotation view of the humerus with a 20° upward angulation to show the acromioclavicular joint
- Axillary view - Most useful to rule out subtle signs of instability (eg, glenoid avulsion, Hill-Sachs lesion) and to visualize the presence of an os acromiale
- Stryker notch view - Potential os acromiale is easily visualized and assessed when viewed through the humeral head
- Supraspinatus outlet view - Most useful to assess the supraspinatus outlet space (If < 7 mm, the patient is more at risk for impingement syndrome.) and helps assess morphology of the acromion (A hooked acromion is more at risk for impingement.)
MRI is considered the imaging study of choice for shoulder pathology.
- No radiation
- Can detect intrasubstance tendon degeneration or partial rotator cuff tears
- Can detect inflammation, edema, hemorrhage, and scarring
- Can be used with an intra-articular contrast agent (eg, gadolinium), improving its ability to detect partial rotator cuff tears
- Often cannot accommodate patients with claustrophobia
- Often cannot accommodate larger patients
- Cannot accommodate patients with pacemakers, other metal implants, or particles
- Dependent on quality of the MRI machine
- Dependent on the skill of the technician performing the imaging and the radiologist interpreting the images
- High cost
For arthrography, dye is injected into the glenohumeral joint and postinjection radiographs are taken to assess the integrity of the glenohumeral joint.
- Can be used to evaluate rotator cuff tears (A finding of dye escaping out of the joint and into the subacromial space is diagnostic of a full-thickness rotator cuff tear.)
- Advantages - Can be used in conjunction with a CT scan to evaluate intra-articular pathology (eg, Bankart tears) and has a low cost
- Disadvantages - Size of the tears cannot be quantified, patient is exposed to radiation and contrast dye, procedure is invasive
- Minimally invasive, visual, surgical procedure to assess shoulder pathology
- Can visualize and assess most shoulder pathology
- May afford the patient and physician a chance to diagnose and treat the pathology with one procedure
- Disadvantage - May miss capsular-sided, partial-thickness tears
Note: A workup for other, more systemic processes may be included as clinically indicated.
Sonoelastography (SE) is a new technique that can assess differences in tissue stiffness. A study investigated the performance of sonoelastography (SE) for the differentiation of supraspinatus (SSP) tendon alterations of tendinopathy compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional ultrasonography (US). The study concluded that SE is valuable in the detection of the intratendinous and peritendinous alterations of the SSP tendon and has excellent interobserver reliability and excellent correlation with MRI findings and conventional ultrasonography findings.
A study by Lee et al evaluated the relationship between tendon stiffness on sonoelastography and the MRI tendinosis grade in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy. The study found that the MRI tendinosis grade is associated with stiffness assessed using sonoelastography in patients with rotator cuff tendinopathy.
Neer CS 2nd. Anterior acromioplasty for the chronic impingement syndrome in the shoulder: a preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1972 Jan. 54(1):41-50. [Medline].
Fu FH, Stone DA, eds. Sports Injuries: Mechanisms, Prevention, Treatment. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 1994. 895-923.
Miller MD, Cooper DE, Warner JJ, eds. Review of Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1995. 113-64.
Millar NL, Wei AQ, Molloy TJ, Bonar F, Murrell GA. Cytokines and apoptosis in supraspinatus tendinopathy. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009 Mar. 91(3):417-24. [Medline].
Lewis JS, Raza SA, Pilcher J, Heron C, Poloniecki JD. The prevalence of neovascularity in patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff tendinopathy. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2009 Dec 21. 10:163. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Seo JB, Yoo JS, Ryu JW. Sonoelastography findings of supraspinatus tendon in rotator cuff tendinopathy without tear: comparison with magnetic resonance images and conventional ultrasonography. J Ultrasound. 2015 Jun. 18 (2):143-9. [Medline].
Lee SU, Joo SY, Kim SK, Lee SH, Park SR, Jeong C. Real-time sonoelastography in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tendinopathy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2016 May. 25 (5):723-9. [Medline].
Mautner K, Colberg RE, Malanga G, et al. Outcomes after ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic tendinopathy: a multicenter, retrospective review. PM R. 2013 Mar. 5(3):169-75. [Medline].
Moraes VY, Lenza M, Tamaoki MJ, Faloppa F, Belloti JC. Platelet-rich therapies for musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Apr 29. 4:CD010071. [Medline].
Andrews JR, Harrelson GL, Wilk KE, Lampert R, eds. Physical Rehabilitation of the Injured Athlete. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co; 1998. 478-553.
Bigliani LU, Morrison DS, April EW. The morphology of the acromion its relationship to rotator cuff tears. J Orthop Trans. 1986. 10:228.
Brotzman SB, ed. Clinical Orthopaedic Rehabilitation. London, England: Mosby; 1995. 92-8.
Chae J, Jedlicka L. Subacromial corticosteroid injection for poststroke shoulder pain: an exploratory prospective case series. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Mar. 90(3):501-6. [Medline].
Cumpston M, Johnston RV, Wengier L, Buchbinder R. Topical glyceryl trinitrate for rotator cuff disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8. CD006355. [Medline].
Denaro V, Ruzzini L, Longo UG, et al. Effect of dihydrotestosterone on cultured human tenocytes from intact supraspinatus tendon. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2010 Jul. 18(7):971-6. [Medline].
Hawkins RJ, Kennedy JC. Impingement syndrome in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 1980 May-Jun. 8(3):151-8. [Medline].
Hong JY, Yoon SH, Moon do J, Kwack KS, Joen B, Lee HY. Comparison of high- and low-dose corticosteroid in subacromial injection for periarticular shoulder disorder: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Dec. 92(12):1951-60. [Medline].
Rees JD, Maffulli N, Cook J. Management of tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2009 Sep. 37(9):1855-67. [Medline].
Schmitt J, Haake M, Tosch A, Hildebrand R, Deike B, Griss P. Low-energy extracorporeal shock-wave treatment (ESWT) for tendinitis of the supraspinatus. A prospective, randomised study. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2001 Aug. 83(6):873-6. [Medline].
Valen PA, Foxworth J. Evidence supporting the use of physical modalities in the treatment of upper extremity musculoskeletal conditions. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2010 Mar. 22(2):194-204. [Medline].