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Pediatric Protein-Losing Enteropathy Medication

  • Author: Simon S Rabinowitz, MD, PhD, FAAP; Chief Editor: Carmen Cuffari, MD  more...
Updated: Nov 17, 2015


Class Summary

In protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) related to lymphatic pathology, providing supplementation with fat-soluble vitamins (eg, A, D, E, K) is important. These agents are necessary for growth and health. For healthy individuals, they are needed in small amounts only and are available in the foods of a daily diet. However, soluble vitamin supplementation is essential in patients with protein-losing enteropathy because the small amounts available in a regular diet are insufficient in the face of the malabsorption that occurs.

ADEK vitamins (AquADEKs Pediatric Liquid, ADEKs Chewable)


PO multinutrient specially formulated for use under medical supervision to provide nutritional supplementation in individuals with malabsorptive conditions. Each 1 mL dose contains water-miscible forms of fat-soluble vitamins A (5,751 U), D (400 U), E (65 U), and K (400 mcg) plus other nutrients, including vitamin C (15 mcg), B-complex vitamins, biotin, selenium (10 mcg), and zinc gluconate (5 mg). Available as chewable tab or pediatric drops.

Vitamin A (Aquasol A)


Needed for night vision and growth of skin, bones, male reproductive organs, and female reproductive organs.

Ergocalciferol (Calciferol, Drisdol)


Form of vitamin D used in vitamin supplements, necessary for strong bones and teeth.

Vitamin E (Vita-Plus E Softgels, Vitec)


Protects polyunsaturated fatty acids in membranes from attack by free radicals and protects red blood cells against hemolysis.

Vitamin K (AquaMEPHYTON)


Fat-soluble vitamin absorbed by the gut and stored in the liver; necessary for the function of clotting factors in the coagulation cascade; used to replace essential vitamins not obtained in sufficient quantities in the diet or to further supplement levels.

Contributor Information and Disclosures

Simon S Rabinowitz, MD, PhD, FAAP Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Vice Chairman, Clinical Practice Development, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, State University of New York Downstate College of Medicine, The Children's Hospital at Downstate

Simon S Rabinowitz, MD, PhD, FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Gastroenterological Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, Phi Beta Kappa, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Gastroenterology, American Medical Association, New York Academy of Sciences, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Jessica A Epstein State University of New York Downstate College of Medicine

Jessica A Epstein is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

David A Piccoli, MD Chief of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Professor, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

David A Piccoli, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American Gastroenterological Association, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Carmen Cuffari, MD Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology/Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Carmen Cuffari, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Gastroenterology, American Gastroenterological Association, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada

Disclosure: Received honoraria from Prometheus Laboratories for speaking and teaching; Received honoraria from Abbott Nutritionals for speaking and teaching.

Additional Contributors

Robert Baldassano, MD Director, Center for Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Robert Baldassano, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Gastroenterological Association, North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Abbott, Inc for consulting.

Brianna Devito University at Buffalo, The State University of New York

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author Barry K Wershil, MD, to the original writing and development of this article.

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