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Fructose 1,6-Diphosphatase Deficiency

  • Author: Sunil Sinha, MD; Chief Editor: Maria Descartes, MD  more...
 
Updated: Nov 03, 2015
 

Background

Glucose homeostasis is essential for life. Because most of an organism's life is spent in a fasting state (ie, between meals), no fewer than 3 major mechanisms have evolved to maintain glucose homeostasis during a fast. These mechanisms are gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis.

In the immediate postprandial period, glycogenolysis represents the major homeostatic process to maintain euglycemia. In neonates, gluconeogenesis is particularly important for maintaining euglycemia. Fructose 1,6-diphosphatase (FDPase) (also termed fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase) is a focal enzyme in gluconeogenesis via its conversion of fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP) to fructose 6-phosphate (F-6-P), which permits endogenous glucose production from gluconeogenic amino acids (eg, alanine and glycine), glycerol, or lactate.

Deficiency of hepatic FDPase was first confirmed in 1970 by Baker and Winegrad.[1] They reported the dramatic clinical picture of acidosis in response to D-fructose challenge.

Of broader clinical interest, excess hepatic FDPase action contributes to hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. The development of specific FDPase inhibitors has opened a novel avenue for treating patients with type 2 diabetes.

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Pathophysiology

FDPase catalyzes the conversion of FDP to F-6-P, which is a central step in gluconeogenesis. When challenged with D-fructose, patients lacking FDPase accumulate intrahepatocellular FDP, which inhibits gluconeogenesis and, if intracellular phosphate stores are depleted, inhibits glycogenolysis. The inability to convert lactic acid or glycerol into glucose leads to hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis, and glyceroluria.

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Epidemiology

Frequency

International

Incidence is approximately 1 in 20,000 live births worldwide.

Mortality/Morbidity

Patients develop severe hypoglycemia with metabolic acidosis upon ingestion of fructose. Fatal hepatic or renal injury following ingestion of fructose has been reported in these patients.

Early diagnosis of this disorder allows clinicians to advise patients regarding the avoidance of prolonged fasting and to initiate administration of intravenous dextrose promptly during illnesses associated with inadequate dextrose absorption (eg, vomiting or severe diarrhea).

Sex

Males and females appear to be affected in equal numbers.

Age

Patients with FDPase deficiency typically present in the newborn period with symptoms or signs related to hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis following ingestion of fructose.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Sunil Sinha, MD Assistant Professor, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Sunil Sinha, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

David Flannery, MD, FAAP, FACMG Vice Chair of Education, Chief, Section of Medical Genetics, Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Georgia

David Flannery, MD, FAAP, FACMG is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Maria Descartes, MD Professor, Department of Human Genetics and Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine

Maria Descartes, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, American Medical Association, American Society of Human Genetics, Society for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, International Skeletal Dysplasia Society, Southeastern Regional Genetics Group

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Michael Fasullo, PhD Senior Scientist, Ordway Research Institute; Associate Professor, State University of New York at Albany; Adjunct Associate Professor, Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College

Michael Fasullo, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: Radiation Research Society, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Genetics Society of America, Environmental Mutagenesis and Genomics Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Robert J Ferry Jr, MD Le Bonheur Chair of Excellence in Endocrinology, Professor and Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Robert J Ferry Jr, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Diabetes Association, American Medical Association, Endocrine Society, Pediatric Endocrine Society, Society for Pediatric Research, and Texas Pediatric Society

Disclosure: Eli Lilly & Co Grant/research funds Investigator; MacroGenics, Inc Grant/research funds Investigator; Ipsen, SA (formerly Tercica, Inc) Grant/research funds Investigator; NovoNordisk SA Grant/research funds Investigator; Diamyd Grant/research funds Investigator; Bristol-Myers-Squibb Grant/research funds Other; Amylin Other; Pfizer Grant/research funds Other; Takeda Grant/research funds Other

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