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Phenylketonuria

  • Author: Georgianne L Arnold, MD; Chief Editor: Luis O Rohena, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 28, 2014
 

Practice Essentials

Phenylketonuria (PKU), the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism, results when a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) impairs the body’s ability to metabolize the essential amino acid phenylalanine. This leads to accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids.

Elevated phenylalanine levels negatively impact cognitive function, and individuals with classic phenylketonuria almost always have intellectual disability unless levels are controlled through dietary or pharmacologic treatment.

Signs and symptoms

Skin findings in PKU are as follows:

  • Fair skin and hair: Resulting from impairment of melanin synthesis, this is the most characteristic cutaneous manifestation of PKU (see the image below); it can be striking in black and Japanese patients, although not all untreated patients are fair; treated patients often have typical pigmentation
    Fair skin and hair resulting from impairment of me Fair skin and hair resulting from impairment of melanin synthesis.
  • Eczema (including atopic dermatitis)
  • Light sensitivity
  • Increased incidence of pyogenic infections
  • Increased incidence of keratosis pilaris
  • Decreased number of pigmented nevi
  • Sclerodermalike plaques
  • Hair loss [1]

Other manifestations of untreated PKU are as follows:

  • Intellectual disability (the most common finding overall)
  • Musty or mousy odor
  • Epilepsy (50%) [2]
  • Extrapyramidal manifestations (eg, parkinsonism)
  • Eye abnormalities (eg, hypopigmentation)

See Clinical Presentation for more detail.

Diagnosis

Laboratory studies

Screening for PKU involves the following:

  • Determination of phenylalanine levels: The standard amino acid analysis done by means of ion exchange chromatography or tandem mass spectrometry
  • The Guthrie test as a bacterial inhibition assay: Formerly used, but now being replaced by tandem mass spectrometry

Imaging studies

Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies may be indicated in older individuals who have abandoned the diet used to manage PKU and are experiencing deficits in motor or cognitive function, or in cases in which behavioral, cognitive, or psychiatric concerns exist. Areas of demyelination are common. In terms of volume loss, the most severely affected brain structures are the cerebrum, the corpus callosum, the hippocampus, and the pons.[3]

See Workup for more detail.

Management

Dietary management and/or pharmacologic treatment are essential for patients with PKU.

Dietary treatment

The mainstay of dietary management for patients with PKU consists of phenylalanine restriction, as well as the use of medical foods to supplement the patient’s intake of other essential amino acids and of vitamins and minerals.[4] Energy and variety are provided by low-protein foods, including fruits, nonstarchy vegetables, and specially ordered low-protein items.

Pharmacologic management

Patients who refuse dietary treatment may benefit to some degree from consuming large neutral amino acids, which may block phenylalanine entry into the brain and may also result in a modest lowering of plasma phenylalanine levels.

Some patients with phenylketonuria experience significant lowering of plasma phenylalanine levels after administration of sapropterin, a form of the tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) cofactor.[5] Unfortunately, persons with some residual enzyme activity are more likely to respond than are patients with no residual enzyme.

See Treatment and Medication for more detail.

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Background

Phenylketonuria (PKU), the most common inborn error of amino acid metabolism, results from an impaired ability to metabolize the essential amino acid phenylalanine. Deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) leads to accumulation of phenylalanine in body fluids.

Classic phenylketonuria is present when plasma phenylalanine levels exceed 20 mg/dL (1200 µmol/L) without treatment. Lesser degrees of elevation of plasma phenylalanine are referred to as hyperphenylalaninemia. Elevated phenylalanine levels negatively impact cognitive function, and individuals with classic phenylketonuria almost always have intellectual disability unless levels are controlled through dietary or pharmacologic treatment.

In the United States and many other countries, phenylketonuria is detected by newborn screening, and individuals who are appropriately treated (eg, with a diet low in phenylalanine and/or tetrahydrobiopterin) can have normal intelligence and lead a normal life.

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Pathophysiology

In most patients, the classic type of PKU involves a deficiency of PAH that leads to increased levels of phenylalanine in the plasma (>1200 µmol/L; reference range, 35-90 µmol/L) and to excretion of phenylpyruvic acid (approximately 1 g/d) and phenylacetic acid in the urine. PAH catalyzes the conversion of L-phenylalanine to L-tyrosine, the rate-limiting step in the oxidative degradation of phenylalanine (see the image below).

Phenylalanine hydroxylase converts phenylalanine t Phenylalanine hydroxylase converts phenylalanine to tyrosine.

The enzyme PAH crystallizes as a tetramer, with each monomer consisting of a catalytic domain and a tetramerization domain. Examination of the mutations causing phenylketonuria reveals that some of the most frequent mutations are located at the interface of the catalytic and tetramerization domains.

PAH requires a nonprotein cofactor termed tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). A small percentage of cases of PKU are due to defects in the synthesis or recycling of BH4 (and not PAH), including GTP-CH I, 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydropterin (6-PTS), or dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR).

The mechanism by which elevated phenylalanine levels cause intellectual disability is not known, although restriction of dietary phenylalanine ameliorates this effect if initiated within a few weeks of birth. A strong relation between control of blood phenylalanine levels in childhood and intelligence quotient (IQ) is recognized.

Subtle neuropsychological deficits in children with treated phenylketonuria are under investigation. Some investigators have attributed these deficits to small residual neurotransmitter abnormalities (eg, reduced production of neurotransmitters as a result of deficient tyrosine transport across the neuronal cell membranes).

A small percentage of children with elevated phenylalanine levels exhibit normal PAH levels but have a deficiency in synthesis or recycling of BH4 (see Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency). This condition is termed malignant phenylketonuria. The BH4 cofactor is also required for hydroxylation of tyrosine (a precursor of dopamine) and tryptophan (a precursor of serotonin). Thus, individuals with BH4 cofactor deficiency can have additional neurologic problems that are not fully corrected by dietary phenylalanine reduction alone, but often require additional treatments that may not be fully effective.

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Etiology

PKU is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the PAH gene, which expresses PAH. This gene is located on 12q23.2, spans about 171 kb, and contains 13 exons. More than 500 different mutations in the PAH gene have been identified.

The PAH gene shows great allelic variation, and pathogenic mutations have been described in all 13 exons of the PAH gene and its flanking region. The mutations can be of various types, including missense mutations (62% of PAH alleles), small or large deletions (13%), splicing defects (11%), silent polymorphisms (6%), nonsense mutations (5%), and insertions (2%).[6]

For the small percentage of PKU caused by BH4 defects, biopterin synthesis defects are caused by mutated alleles at 3 other loci (11q22.3-23.3, 10q22, and 2p13) or by BH4 recycling defects involving abnormalities localized to 4p15.1-16.1.

PKU displays a marked genotypic heterogeneity, both within populations and between different populations. Genotype and phenotype are broadly related (ie, reproducible mild versus severe mutations), but unrelated individuals with identical mutations have some degree of variability in phenylalanine tolerance.

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Epidemiology

United States statistics

Disease frequency varies by population. The prevalence in the general US population is approximately 4 cases per 100,000 individuals, and the incidence is 350 cases per million live births. Approximately 0.04-1% of the residents in intellectual disability clinics are affected by PKU. A low incidence is reported in African Americans (1/50,000).

International statistics

A high incidence is reported in Turkey (approximately 1 case in 2600 births), the Yemenite Jewish population (1/5300), Scotland (1:5300), Estonia (1:8090),[7] Hungary (1/11,000), Denmark (1/12,000), France (1/13,500), the United Kingdom (1/14,300), Norway (1/14,500), China (1/17,000), Italy (1/17,000), Canada (1/20,000), Minas Gerais State in Brazil (1/20,000),[8] and the former Yugoslavia (1/25,042).[9] A low incidence is reported in Finland (< 1/100,000)[10] and Japan (1/125,000).[6]

Age-, sex-, and race-related demographics

Phenylketonuria is most commonly diagnosed in neonates because of newborn screening programs. Consider phenylketonuria at any age in an individual with developmental delay or intellectual disability because infants are missed by newborn screening programs on rare occasions.

No sex predilection is known. Women with phenylketonuria must restrict their phenylalanine levels during pregnancy to avoid birth defects and intellectual disability in their infants. Untreated maternal PKU increases the risk for developmental problems in offspring.

In the United States, phenylketonuria is most common in whites. Worldwide, phenylketonuria is most common in whites and Asians.

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Prognosis

The prognosis for normal intelligence is excellent when patients have been put on a diet low in phenylalanine in the first month of life, with careful monitoring. However, school functioning can be mildly impaired in some children, particularly when dietary control is poor.

A quantitative, proportional relation exists between blood phenylalanine levels and IQ for early-treated patients with PKU assessed either during the critical early childhood years (age 0-12 y) or by a lifetime Index of Dietary Control. A 100-μmol/L increase in phenylalanine has resulted in a 1.3- to 4.1-point reduction in IQ.[11]

Patients with PKU who are treated early and continuously can have a normal health-related quality of life and course of life.[12] Well-treated patients should have IQs within approximately 5-8 points of their siblings.

Most untreated individuals with phenylketonuria have profound intellectual disability. After the discovery of phenylketonuria, routine testing of institutionalized patients with intellectual disability identified a 1% incidence of phenylketonuria in this group.

Psychological problems, including agoraphobia and other disorders, have been reported in individuals both on and off dietary treatment. Treated patients with phenylketonuria often experience subtle performance and attention and behavioral changes, especially when phenylalanine levels exceed 360 µmol/L.

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Patient Education

Teach parents how to administer the diet at home, and involve all caregivers as well. Children should begin involvement in their dietary planning as soon as they are developmentally ready. Poor dietary control is often associated with increasing noncompliance by older children, but it could also be due to a more relaxed dietary approach by parents and increasing dietary errors.[13]

Women with PKU should be educated about the risks of untreated pregnancy and the benefits of dietary and, in some cases, pharmacologic, treatment. Patients with PKU should avoid aspartame (an artificial sweetener). Aspartame is widely used in medicines, vitamins, beverages, and other substances.

The phenylalanine-restricted diet with semisynthetic supplementation is not without risk. PKU patients under dietary treatment can have low concentrations of trace elements and cholesterol and can have some disturbance to folate metabolism and distortion of their fatty acid profile.[6] In addition, overtreatment resulting in insufficient phenylalanine intake can cause intellectual disability

The organization National PKU News is a nonprofit entity dedicated to providing up-to-date, accurate news and information to families and professionals dealing with PKU. This site contains excellent articles and links to other information sources. Information on how to subscribe to a PKU newsletter and on how to contact support groups is available. Numerous other PKU Web sites are available to assist families in search of additional information.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Georgianne L Arnold, MD Faculty, Department of Pediatrics, Divison of Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Georgianne L Arnold, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Society for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism, American Society of Human Genetics

Disclosure: Received grant/research funds from Biomarin for clinical trial.

Coauthor(s)

Robert D Steiner, MD Chief Medical Officer, Acer Therapeutics; Clinical Professor, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health

Robert D Steiner, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, American Society of Human Genetics, Society for Inherited Metabolic Disorders, Society for Pediatric Research, Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism

Disclosure: Serve(d) as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, consultant or trustee for: Acer Therapeutics; Retrophin; Raptor Pharma; Veritas Genetics; Censa Pharma<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Acer Therapeutics; Retrophin; Raptor Pharma; Censa Pharma.

Chief Editor

Luis O Rohena, MD Chief, Medical Genetics, San Antonio Military Medical Center; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F Edward Hebert School of Medicine; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio

Luis O Rohena, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Chemical Society, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, American Society of Human Genetics

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

David F Butler, MD Professor of Dermatology, Texas A&M University College of Medicine; Chair, Department of Dermatology, Director, Dermatology Residency Training Program, Scott and White Clinic, Northside Clinic

David F Butler, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American Medical Association, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, American Society for MOHS Surgery, Association of Military Dermatologists, and Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mark A Crowe, MD Assistant Clinical Instructor, Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, University of Washington School of Medicine

Mark A Crowe, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology and North American Clinical Dermatologic Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

William D James, MD, Paul R Gross Professor of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine; Vice-Chair, Program Director, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania Health System

William D James, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, and the Society for Investigative Dermatology.

Disclosure: Royalty from Elselvier.

Djordjije Karadaglic, MD, DSc Professor, School of Medicine, University of Podgorica, Podgorica, Montenegro

Djordjije Karadaglic, MD, DSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Dermatology, European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, and Serbian Association of DermatoVenereologists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose

Zeljko P Mijuskovic, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Dermatology, Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Military Medical Academy, Serbia

Zeljko P Mijuskovic, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, European Society for Dermatological Research, International Society of Dermatology, and Serbian Association of DermatoVenereologists

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Christian J Renner, MD Consulting Staff, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Erlangen, Germany

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH Professor and Head, Dermatology, Professor of Pathology, Pediatrics, Medicine, and Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School

Robert A Schwartz, MD, MPH is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Physicians, and Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Ljubomir Stojanov, MD, PhD Lecturer in Metabolism and Clinical Genetics, University of Belgrade School of Medicine, Serbia

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD, Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Phenylalanine hydroxylase converts phenylalanine to tyrosine.
Fair skin and hair resulting from impairment of melanin synthesis.
 
 
 
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