Pediatric Acute Anemia Differential Diagnoses
- Author: Susumu Inoue, MD; Chief Editor: Robert J Arceci, MD, PhD more...
Conditions to consider, aside from those in the next section, in the differential diagnosis of acute anemia include the following:
- Acute hemorrhage
- Anemia of inflammation/infection
- Aplastic anemia, due to blood loss
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with acute hemolysis
- Erythrophagocytosis (hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis [HLH])
- G-6-PD deficiency, hemolytic episode
- Hereditary spherocytosis, splenic sequestration, or acute hemolytic episode
- Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (DIC, Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon)
- Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria
- Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)
- Hemolytic disease of newborn
- Hemolytic-uremic syndrome
- Acute porphyria
Conditions to consider, aside from those in the next section, in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia include the following:
- Chronic renal failure
- Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia
- Fanconi anemia
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Diamond-Blackfan anemia
- Sideroblastic anemia
- Unstable hemoglobinopathy
- Transient erythroblastopenia of childhood
- Pyruvate kinase deficiency
- Evans syndrome (ITP and autoimmune hemolytic anemia)
- Hemoglobin H disease
- Aplastic or hypoplastic anemia
- Autoimmune hemolytic anemia
- Pure red cell aplasia
Many anemias may be due to a combination of several mechanisms. For example, anemia due to acute infection is due to temporal suppression of erythropoiesis and some degree of hemolysis.
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