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May-Hegglin Anomaly Workup

  • Author: Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK), FAAP; Chief Editor: Hassan M Yaish, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 03, 2016
 

Approach Considerations

Because of the increased risks of bleeding (particularly intracranial hemorrhage) in young children who have thrombocytopenia, special attention must be paid to pediatric patients with May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) who have sustained severe head trauma. Imaging studies of the head (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) should be considered in these patients. Because MHA is an autosomal dominant inherited condition, genetic counseling is important.

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Laboratory Studies

The complete blood count (CBC) is essential in assessing MHA. The platelet count is decreased (usually in the range of 40-80 ´ 109/L), but the degree of thrombocytopenia varies. The disorder is also characterized by giant platelets. Platelets are enlarged (>15 µm in diameter), and the mean volume of MHA platelets can be as high as 30 fL. Platelet morphology is otherwise normal.

On electron microscopy, platelets are seen to contain normal organelles (alpha granules, dense granules, lysosomes, and mitochondria). The most conspicuous ultrastructural feature of the platelets is an increased amount of disorganized microtubules.

The Wright-stained peripheral blood smear shows cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (see the image below), particularly in the neutrophils but also in monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The inclusions are large (>5 µm), spindle-shaped, pale, blue-staining bodies that consist of ribosomes, segments of endoplasmic reticulum, and microfilaments. They are located in the periphery of the cytoplasm and resemble Döhle bodies.

Blood smear (original magnification ×2000) in pati Blood smear (original magnification ×2000) in patient with May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) demonstrates characteristic giant platelet with poorly defined granulation. Normal-sized platelet is also present. Trilobed neutrophil contains large, well-defined, basophilic, peripherally placed cytoplasmic inclusion body (resembling Döhle body). Image used with permission from Little, Brown.

Immunocytochemistry can detect NMMHCIIA complexes within the leukocytes and is a useful confirmatory test.[22]

The bleeding time is prolonged in concordance with the degree of thrombocytopenia. Platelets usually aggregate normally in response to various agonists. The glycoprotein composition of the platelet surface is normal.[10]

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK), FAAP Professor of Pediatrics, Albany Medical College; Chief, Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, John and Anna Landis Endowed Chair for Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Medical Director, Melodies Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Disorders, Albany Medical Center

Vikramjit S Kanwar, MBBS, MBA, MRCP(UK), FAAP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children's Oncology Group, International Society of Pediatric Oncology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Hassan M Yaish, MD Medical Director, Intermountain Hemophilia and Thrombophilia Treatment Center; Professor of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine; Director of Hematology, Pediatric Hematologist/Oncologist, Department of Pediatrics, Primary Children's Medical Center

Hassan M Yaish, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, New York Academy of Sciences, American Medical Association, American Society of Hematology, American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Michigan State Medical Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Gary D Crouch, MD Associate Professor, Program Director of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Fellowship, Department of Pediatrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

Gary D Crouch, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics and American Society of Hematology

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Frank E Shafer, MD Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Hematology-Oncology, St Christopher's Hospital for Children, MCP Hahnemann University School of Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Blood smear (original magnification ×2000) in patient with May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) demonstrates characteristic giant platelet with poorly defined granulation. Normal-sized platelet is also present. Trilobed neutrophil contains large, well-defined, basophilic, peripherally placed cytoplasmic inclusion body (resembling Döhle body). Image used with permission from Little, Brown.
Table. Clinical Features of MYH9 -Related Thrombocytopenias
Condition Macrothrombocytopenia Granulocyte inclusions Nephritis and Deafness Cataracts
MHA Yes Linear Döhlelike No No
Epstein syndrome Yes Absent or faint Yes No
Fechtner syndrome Yes Spherical granules Yes Yes
Sebastian syndrome Yes Spherical granules No No
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