Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.


Pediatric Actinomycosis Follow-up

  • Author: Jorge M Quinonez, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
Updated: Jan 12, 2016

Further Outpatient Care

See the list below:

  • Observe patients for a prolonged period because the potential for relapse is significant. Emphasize compliance with prolonged courses of antibiotics to prevent recurrences.


See the list below:

  • The practice of good oral and dental hygiene may reduce the possibility of developing actinomycosis.
  • No measure absolutely prevents the disease.
  • Explain to female patients about the possibility of actinomycosis when intrauterine or intravaginal devices are used.


See the list below:

  • The use of high doses and prolonged courses of antibiotics has dramatically altered the prognosis of this disease.
  • Patients who present late in the disease process tend to have a poor outcome.

Patient Education

See the list below:

  • Education on good oral hygiene practices is extremely valuable in preventing actinomycosis.
  • Educate female patients using intrauterine contraceptive devices on the possibility of developing actinomycosis.
Contributor Information and Disclosures

Jorge M Quinonez, MD Senior Vice President and Chief Medical Officer, Family Health Centers of Southwest Florida, Inc

Jorge M Quinonez, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Glaxo Smith Kline for speaking and teaching.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mark R Schleiss, MD Minnesota American Legion and Auxiliary Heart Research Foundation Chair of Pediatrics, Professor of Pediatrics, Division Director, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School

Mark R Schleiss, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Pediatric Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine

Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International Immunocompromised Host Society, International Society for Infectious Diseases, Medical Society of the District of Columbia, New York Academy of Sciences, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association, Society for Ear, Nose and Throat Advances in Children, American Federation for Clinical Research, Surgical Infection Society, Armed Forces Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

  1. Funke G, von Graevenitz A. Infections due to Actinomyces neuii (former "CDC coryneform group 1" bacteria). Infection. 1995 Mar-Apr. 23(2):73-5. [Medline].

  2. Siqueira JF, Rocas IN. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Propionibacterium propionicus and Actynomyces radicidentis in primary and persistent endodontic infections. Oral Surg oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003. 96:215-222. [Medline].

  3. Perlow JH, Wigton T, Yordan EL, et al. Disseminated pelvic actinomycosis presenting as metastatic carcinoma: association with the progestasert intrauterine device. Rev Infect Dis. 1991 Nov-Dec. 13(6):1115-9. [Medline].

  4. Thacker SA, Healy CM. Pediatric Cervicofacial Actinomycosis: An Unusual Cause of Head and Neck Masses. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014 Jun. 3 (2):e15-9. [Medline].

  5. Kutluhan A, Salviz M, Yalçiner G, Kandemir O, Yesil C. The role of the actinomyces in obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis in pediatric population. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2011 Mar. 75(3):391-4. [Medline].

  6. Valour F, Sénéchal A, Dupieux C, Karsenty J, Lustig S, Breton P, et al. Actinomycosis: etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and management. Infect Drug Resist. 2014. 7:183-97. [Medline].

  7. Bianchini MA, Bigi E, Repetto P, Ceccarelli P, Durante V, Biondini D, et al. A case of frozen pelvis: primary actinomycosis of urinary bladder in a young boy. J Pediatr Surg. 2012 Dec. 47(12):e9-11. [Medline].

  8. Liu V, Val S, Kang K, Velcek F. Case report: actinomycosis of the appendix--an unusual cause of acute appendicitis in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2010 Oct. 45(10):2050-2. [Medline].

  9. Yang XX, Lin JM, Xu KJ, Wang SQ, Luo TT, Geng XX, et al. Hepatic actinomycosis: report of one case and analysis of 32 previously reported cases. World J Gastroenterol. 2014 Nov 21. 20 (43):16372-6. [Medline].

  10. Hung PC, Wang HS, Chiu CH, Wong AM. Cervical spinal cord compression in a child with cervicofacial actinomycosis. Brain Dev. 2013 Aug 28. [Medline].

  11. Cintron JR, Del Pino A, Duarte B, et al. Abdominal actinomycosis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1996 Jan. 39(1):105-8. [Medline].

  12. Henderson SR. Pelvic actinomycosis associated with an intrauterine device. Obstet Gynecol. 1973 May. 41(5):726-32. [Medline].

  13. Koshi G, Lalitha MK, Samraj T, et al. Brain abscess and other protean manifestations of actinomycosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1981 Jan. 30(1):139-44. [Medline].

  14. Maxon S, Jacobs R. Actinomycosis. Feigin R, Cherry J, Fletcher J, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders and Co; 1998. 1587-90.

  15. Robinson JL, Vaudry WL, Dobrovolsky W. Actinomycosis presenting as osteomyelitis in the pediatric population. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Apr. 24(4):365-9. [Medline].

  16. Russo T. Agents of Actinomycosis. Mandell G, Bennett J, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingston; 1995. 2280-8.

  17. Sakallioglu U, Acikgoz G, Kirtiloglu T, et al. Rare lesions of the oral cavity: case report of an actinomycotic lesion limited to the gingiva. J Oral Sci. 2003 Mar. 45(1):39-42. [Medline].

  18. Skoutelis A, Petrochilos J, Bassaris H. Successful treatment of thoracic actinomycosis with ceftriaxone. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jul. 19(1):161-2. [Medline].

  19. Smego RA Jr. Actinomycosis of the central nervous system. Rev Infect Dis. 1987 Sep-Oct. 9(5):855-65. [Medline].

  20. Smego RA Jr, Foglia G. Actinomycosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Jun. 26(6):1255-61; quiz 1262-3. [Medline].

  21. Snape PS. Thoracic actinomycosis: an unusual childhood infection. South Med J. 1993 Feb. 86(2):222-4. [Medline].

  22. Tanaka-Bandoh K, Watanabe K, Kato N, et al. Susceptibilities of Actinomyces species and Propionibacterium propionicus to antimicrobial agents. Clin Infect Dis. 1997 Sep. 25 Suppl 2:S262-3. [Medline].

  23. Weese WC, Smith IM. A study of 57 cases of actinomycosis over a 36-year period. A diagnostic 'failure' with good prognosis after treatment. Arch Intern Med. 1975 Dec. 135(12):1562-8. [Medline].

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.