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Chorioretinitis Follow-up

  • Author: Ayesha Mirza, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
Updated: Oct 04, 2015

Further Outpatient Care

See the list below:

  • Long-term care should alleviate debilitating conditions and improve functions for patients with chorioretinitis. An involved primary care physician should work closely with the specialists, the school system, and social workers.

Further Inpatient Care

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  • Children with congenital infections and chorioretinitis (CR) face many possible handicaps, including partial or total loss of vision, deafness, seizure disorders, and mental retardation.
  • Short-term care for individuals with chorioretinitis includes diagnostic and management planning.
  • Management planning requires participation of several specialists included but not limited to the ophthalmologist, infectious disease specialist, neurologist, physiotherapist, and child development specialist.


See the list below:

  • Except when caused by congenital toxoplasmosis (CTP), prognosis for individuals with chorioretinitis depends on the originating process but tends to be self-limited.
  • Chorioretinitis due to CTP is progressive, and the outcome is not usually predictable. Late-onset retinal lesions can occur many years after birth, but the overall ocular prognosis of congenital toxoplasmosis is satisfactory when the infection is identified early and treatment is instituted appropriately.[34]

Patient Education

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  • Aim educational efforts at reducing the incidence of primary toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. Screen pregnant women for the presence of toxoplasmosis immunoglobin (Ig)G and educate these individuals to avoid consuming undercooked meat and handling a cat litter box.
  • In the summer and fall seasons, public health measures can be used to reduce the risk of mosquito-borne viral encephalitis or tick-borne Lyme disease. During peak season for mosquitos and ticks, educate pregnant women to avoid insect bites (eg, cover up, apply insecticide to clothing items) and carry out limited larvicidal spraying to control mosquito infestation.
Contributor Information and Disclosures

Ayesha Mirza, MD Associate Professor, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Florida College of Medicine Jacksonville

Ayesha Mirza, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, HIV Medicine Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


Diana E Guinazu, MD Fellow in Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Florida College of Medicine

Diana E Guinazu, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mark R Schleiss, MD Minnesota American Legion and Auxiliary Heart Research Foundation Chair of Pediatrics, Professor of Pediatrics, Division Director, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School

Mark R Schleiss, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Pediatric Society, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Additional Contributors

Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc Professor, Department of Pediatrics, Georgetown University School of Medicine

Itzhak Brook, MD, MSc is a member of the following medical societies: American Association for the Advancement of Science, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American Medical Association, American Society for Microbiology, Association of Military Surgeons of the US, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International Immunocompromised Host Society, International Society for Infectious Diseases, Medical Society of the District of Columbia, New York Academy of Sciences, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association, Society for Ear, Nose and Throat Advances in Children, American Federation for Clinical Research, Surgical Infection Society, Armed Forces Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.


The authors and editors of Medscape Reference gratefully acknowledge the contributions of previous author Quoc V Nguyen, MD, to the original writing and development of this article.

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