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Pediatric Gastroenteritis Differential Diagnoses

  • Author: Randy P Prescilla, MD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: May 27, 2016
 
 

Differential Diagnoses

 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Randy P Prescilla, MD Instructor in Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Perioperative Anesthesia, Children's Hospital Boston

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Joseph Domachowske, MD Professor of Pediatrics, Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, State University of New York Upstate Medical University

Joseph Domachowske, MD is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Phi Beta Kappa

Disclosure: Received research grant from: Pfizer;GlaxoSmithKline;AstraZeneca;Merck;American Academy of Pediatrics<br/>Received income in an amount equal to or greater than $250 from: Sanofi Pasteur;Astra Zeneca;Novartis<br/>Consulting fees for: Sanofi Pasteur; Novartis; Merck; Astra Zeneca.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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Table 1. Assessment of Dehydration[2]
Symptom or SignNo or Minimal DehydrationMild-to-Moderate DehydrationSevere Dehydration
Mental statusAlertRestless, irritableLethargic, unconscious
ThirstDrinks normallyDrinks eagerlyDrinks poorly
Heart rateNormalNormal to increasedTachycardia
Quality of pulsesNormalNormal to decreasedWeak or not palpable
BreathingNormalNormal or fastDeep
EyesNormalSlightly sunkenDeeply sunken
TearsPresentDecreasedAbsent
Mouth and tongueMoistDryParched
Skin foldInstant recoilRecoil < 2 secondsRecoil >2 seconds
Capillary refillNormalProlongedProlonged or minimal
ExtremitiesWarmCoolCold, mottled, cyanotic
Urine outputNormalDecreasedMinimal
Table 2: Assessment of Dehydration[21]
Severe DehydrationTwo of the following signs:
  • Lethargic or unconscious
  • Sunken eyes
  • Not able to drink or drinking poorly
  • Skin pinch goes back very slowly
Some DehydrationTwo of the following signs:
  • Restless, irritable
  • Sunken eyes
  • Thirsty, drinks eagerly
  • Skin pinch goes back slowly
No DehydrationNot enough of the above signs to classify as some or severe dehydration
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