Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Elbow and Forearm Overuse Injuries Follow-up

  • Author: Vincent N Disabella, DO, FAOASM; Chief Editor: Sherwin SW Ho, MD  more...
 
Updated: Oct 21, 2015
 

Return to Play

Return to play is usually appropriate when (1) the patient's symptoms are tolerable, (2) anatomic and biomechanic corrections are made, and (3) 90% of the strength of the affected side as compared with the unaffected side has returned. If the dominant side is affected, athlete's elbow and forearm should return to 100% of the strength of the nondominant side.

Next

Complications

The major complication of overuse syndromes is the individual returning to the same poor habits that caused the original insult. Care must be taken when correcting the biomechanics of an injury, in order not to cause overuse injuries at another point in the kinetic chain. Very rarely, permanent nerve damage can result from nerve entrapment syndromes.

Previous
Next

Prevention

The best way to prevent overuse injury is to stress to athletes and coaches the proper biomechanics with any physical activity. A frequent mistake that athletes make is increasing the intensity or duration of an activity too rapidly for the body to adapt. Runners use a 10% rule that is usually fitting: only increase the weight, distance, or duration of an exercise 10% every 10 workouts.

Related Medscape topic:

Resource Center Exercise and Sports Medicine

Previous
Next

Prognosis

The prognosis of most overuse injuries is very good, as long as the athlete completes a thorough rehabilitation program. The correction of any training or biomechanical errors that caused the original overload is also very important.

Previous
Next

Education

Educate athletes and coaches concerning preventive measures to help eliminate overuse injuries in their respective sports. Many times, it is important to have the athletes participate in a sound strength and conditioning program to ensure that these individuals are physically prepared for the stresses of their sport.

Related Medscape topics:

Resource Center Exercise and Sports Medicine

Resource Center Trauma

Previous
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Vincent N Disabella, DO, FAOASM President, Sports Medicine of Delaware, Inc

Vincent N Disabella, DO, FAOASM is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Sports Medicine, American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine, American Osteopathic Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.

Chief Editor

Sherwin SW Ho, MD Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Section of Orthopedic Surgery and Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Chicago Division of the Biological Sciences, The Pritzker School of Medicine

Sherwin SW Ho, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Arthroscopy Association of North America, Herodicus Society, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Received consulting fee from Biomet, Inc. for speaking and teaching; Received grant/research funds from Smith and Nephew for fellowship funding; Received grant/research funds from DJ Ortho for course funding; Received grant/research funds from Athletico Physical Therapy for course, research funding; Received royalty from Biomet, Inc. for consulting.

Additional Contributors

Joseph P Garry, MD, FACSM, FAAFP Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota Medical School

Joseph P Garry, MD, FACSM, FAAFP is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Family Physicians, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, Minnesota Medical Association, American College of Sports Medicine

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. Mehlhoff TL, Bennett JB. Elbow injuries. Mellion MB, Walsh WM, Shelton GL, eds. The Team Physician's Handbook. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Hanley & Belfus; 1997: 461-74.

  2. Reid DC. Sports Injury Assessment and Rehabilitation. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 1992. 999-1053.

  3. Bridgeman C, Naidu S, Kothari MJ. Clinical and electrophysiological presentation of pronator syndrome. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar-Apr. 47(2):89-92. [Medline].

  4. Grana WA, Boscardin JB, Schneider HJ, et al. Evaluation of elbow and shoulder problems in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Orthop. 2007 Jun. 36(6):308-13. [Medline].

  5. Saliman JD, Beaulieu CF, McAdams TR. Ligament and tendon injury to the elbow: clinical, surgical, and imaging features. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2006 Oct. 17(5):327-36. [Medline].

  6. Lee ML, Rosenwasser MP. Chronic elbow instability. Orthop Clin North Am. 1999 Jan. 30(1):81-9. [Medline].

  7. Maloney MD, Mohr KJ, el Attrache NS. Elbow injuries in the throwing athlete. Difficult diagnoses and surgical complications. Clin Sports Med. 1999 Oct. 18(4):795-809. [Medline].

  8. Nirschl RP, Kraushaar BS. Assessment and treatment guidelines for elbow injuries. Physic Sportsmed. 1996. 24(5):43-60. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  9. Field LD, Altchek DW. Elbow injuries. Clin Sports Med. 1995 Jan. 14(1):59-78. [Medline].

  10. Weinstein SM, Herring SA. Nerve problems and compartment syndromes in the hand, wrist, and forearm. Clin Sports Med. 1992 Jan. 11(1):161-88. [Medline].

  11. Magra M, Caine D, Maffulli N. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports. Sports Med. 2007. 37(8):717-35. [Medline].

  12. Chumbley EM, O''Connor FG, Nirschl RP. Evaluation of overuse elbow injuries. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Feb 1. 61(3):691-700. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  13. Colman WW, Strauch RJ. Physical examination of the elbow. Orthop Clin North Am. 1999 Jan. 30(1):15-20. [Medline].

  14. Kane SF, Lynch JH, Taylor JC. Evaluation of elbow pain in adults. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Apr 15. 89 (8):649-57. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  15. Novak CB, Mehdian H, von Schroeder HP. Laxity of the ulnar nerve during elbow flexion and extension. J Hand Surg Am. 2012 Jun. 37(6):1163-7. [Medline].

  16. O'Driscoll SW, Bell DF, Morrey BF. Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1991 Mar. 73(3):440-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  17. Gross PT, Tolomeo EA. Proximal median neuropathies. Neurol Clin. 1999 Aug. 17(3):425-45, v. [Medline].

  18. Harris JD, Lintner DM. Nerve injuries about the elbow in the athlete. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2014 Sep. 22 (3):e7-15. [Medline].

  19. Kaplan KM, Elattrache NS, Jobe FW, Morrey BF, Kaufman KR, Hurd WJ. Comparison of shoulder range of motion, strength, and playing time in uninjured high school baseball pitchers who reside in warm- and cold-weather climates. Am J Sports Med. 2011 Feb. 39(2):320-8. [Medline].

  20. Jayaseelan DJ, Magrum EM. Eccentric training for the rehabilitation of a high level wrestler with distal biceps tendinosis: a case report. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Aug. 7(4):413-24. [Medline]. [Full Text].

  21. Chiodo A, Chadd E. Ulnar neuropathy at or distal to the wrist: traumatic versus cumulative stress cases. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Apr. 88(4):504-12. [Medline].

  22. Kaeding CC, Whitehead R. Musculoskeletal injuries in adolescents. Prim Care. 1998 Mar. 25(1):211-23. [Medline].

  23. Kamineni S, Hirahara H, Neale P, et al. Effectiveness of the lateral unilateral dynamic external fixator after elbow ligament injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007 Aug. 89(8):1802-9. [Medline].

  24. Nuber GW, Assenmacher J, Bowen MK. Neurovascular problems in the forearm, wrist, and hand. Clin Sports Med. 1998 Jul. 17(3):585-610. [Medline].

Previous
Next
 
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.