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Pediatric Mycoplasma Infections Treatment & Management

  • Author: Archana Chatterjee, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: Jul 23, 2015
 

Medical Care

Antimicrobial therapy is not necessary for mycoplasmal infection of the upper respiratory tract.

An increase in macrolide-resistant M pneumoniae (MRMP) has been reported.[65, 66] This resistant form can be associated with prolonged severe respiratory infection in children.[67] Although pneumonia is self-limiting and is not life threatening in most patients, treatment with appropriate antimicrobials may shorten the duration of illness and perhaps reduce spread to contacts.

Using genotypic and phenotypic methods, Zheng et al detected high-level MRMP in 13.2% of 91 M pneumoniae–positive specimens from 6 United States locations. Macrolides should remain the drugs of choice in children with M pneumoniae respiratory infections, but with the emergence of high-level MRMP in all 6 centers throughout a broad geographic area in the United States, clinicians should be vigilant for macrolide treatment failures.[68]

Management of genitourinary diseases in which Mycoplasma species may play a role depends on recognizing the clinical syndromes for which antimicrobial therapy may be appropriate. Consider using antimicrobials that are active against mycoplasmal organisms in nongonococcal urethritis and pelvic inflammatory disease. Extrapulmonary complications are likely to be associated with an autoimmune response; thus, immunosuppressive therapy using steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin may be helpful.[52, 69]

 

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Surgical Care

Surgical treatment is typically not needed.

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Consultations

Although consultations are usually not needed, in severe cases, admission to the ICU and consultation with critical care specialists, pulmonologists, and infectious disease physicians may be warranted. In patients who present with extrapulmonary manifestations, consult appropriate subspecialists.

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Activity

Activity is as tolerated by the patient.

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Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Archana Chatterjee, MD, PhD Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatrics, Senior Associate Dean for Faculty Development, Sanford School of Medicine, The University of South Dakota

Archana Chatterjee, MD, PhD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, International Society for Infectious Diseases, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Coauthor(s)

Catherine O’Keefe, DNP, APRN-NP Associate Professor of Nursing, Clinician-Educator Track Graduate Curriculum Coordinator, Nurse Practitioner Programs, Creighton University, School of Nursing; Pediatric Nurse Practitioner, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Creighton University Medical Center

Catherine O’Keefe, DNP, APRN-NP is a member of the following medical societies: American Association of Nurse Practitioners, National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners, Nebraska Nurse Practitioners

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Specialty Editor Board

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Larry I Lutwick, MD Professor of Medicine, State University of New York Downstate Medical School; Director, Infectious Diseases, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Health Care System, Brooklyn Campus

Larry I Lutwick, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Rosemary Johann-Liang, MD Medical Officer, Infectious Diseases and Pediatrics, Division of Special Pathogens and Immunological Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration

Rosemary Johann-Liang, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, and Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

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General characteristics of Mycoplasma species.
 
 
 
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