Close
New

Medscape is available in 5 Language Editions – Choose your Edition here.

 

Pediatric Pharyngitis Treatment & Management

  • Author: Harold K Simon, MD, MBA; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
 
Updated: Apr 26, 2016
 

Approach Considerations

For patients with signs of dehydration, administer adequate oral or intravenous (IV) fluids. Remember that pain may limit oral intake, complicating hydration maintenance in the patient. Rarely, small children with pharyngitis who have signs and symptoms of dehydration after refusing to drink may require hospitalization for IV hydration. Usually, even patients who require IV hydration in the emergency department (ED) consume enough oral fluids after their IV fluid bolus to allow home management with close and adequate follow-up care and good instructions for returning if the condition worsens or oral intake is poor.

For patients with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) pharyngitis, the antibiotic treatment of choice is penicillin. Provided that rapid testing is available, physicians can decide, on the basis of the clinical severity of the pharyngitis, whether to initiate therapy immediately if a rapid test is positive for GABHS or to delay therapy until culture results are obtained. The issue of early versus delayed therapy has several considerations.[9]

Benefits of early treatment include the following:

  • Therapy within 48 hours of symptom appearance appears to shorten the duration of symptoms
  • Early therapy limits spread to other children
  • Early therapy allows the patient and family to return to their usual routine sooner; because more than 80% of patients have culture-negative results after 24 hours of therapy, the child should remain out of school or daycare for 24 hours after starting therapy; they must also be fever free before returning
  • Early therapy limits losses to follow-up

Disadvantages of early treatment include the following:

  • Early therapy may lead to a higher failure rate secondary to an inability to create an immune response to the infection
  • Rheumatic fever may still be prevented if antibiotic therapy is initiated within 9 days of symptom onset [10]
  • Possible drug reactions and expenses may be avoided by refraining from immediately treating cases caused by pathogens other than GABHS (viruses in particular)

Make decisions on an individual basis, taking into account available testing, the severity of symptoms, the feasibility of arranging follow-up care, and the need for patients and their families to quickly return to their regular routine.

For patients with viral pharyngitis, care should be supportive, with antipyretics for pain and fever.

Some have also suggested that steroid use, dexamethasone in particular, may reduce pain and decrease symptom duration for both viral pharyngitis and streptococcal pharyngitis. This has been primarily shown in the adult population. In children, the length of symptoms has been shown to be minimally improved with adjunct steroid use; however, steroids might be considered in children with significant symptoms or discomfort.[11]

Refer to the primary care physician for follow-up care. For most patients, no specific diet is needed, but adequate fluid intake and hydration are of vital importance. Monitor the patient to prevent secondary dehydration. To limit the spread to other individuals who have not been exposed, the patient should avoid school and new contacts during the initial 24 hours after beginning antibiotic therapy for GABHS and until free of fever.

Next

Pharmacologic Therapy

Penicillin is the typical therapy for GABHS pharyngitis, in conjunction with prevention of dehydration and supportive care for pain. Improved compliance with regimens has been noted when penicillin treatment is administered 2-3 times daily, as compared with traditional regimens comprising 4 daily doses. Treatment regimens with as few as 2 doses per day have been proved to be effective.[12] Administer a minimum of 20 mg/kg/day; larger children generally should receive 500 mg divided into 2 daily doses for 10 days.

Initial studies using a 5- to 7-day course of penicillin showed a decline in the number of GABHS positive follow-up throat cultures, from 53% to 18%. Subsequent 10-day courses of penicillin proved to be the most beneficial in eradicating GABHS from the pharynx. Therefore, the diagnosis and proper treatment of GABHS are of vital importance.

However, a Cochrane review of 20 studies (including 13,102 acute GABHS pharyngitis cases) that compared short duration of antibiotic therapy with standard duration of therapy for treating acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children determined that short-duration treatment resulted in shorter periods of fever and sore throat, less risk of early clinical treatment failure, and comparable rates of early bacteriologic treatment failure (or late clinical recurrence).[13]

The authors concluded that a 3- to 6-day regimen of oral antibiotics had an efficacy comparable with that of a standard-duration 10-day oral penicillin regimen in treating children with acute GABHS pharyngitis.[13] Shorter courses of antibiotics could limit antibiotic use, reduce cost, and potentially minimize antibiotic resistance; however, the long-term impact on the prevention of rheumatic heart disease is not known and requires further study.

Several other medications, including some that are more palatable and meet with better compliance, have been approved to treat GABHS pharyngitis. For example, amoxicillin has often been used in place of penicillin; however, neither has been determined to possess a significant microbiologic advantage over penicillin. One preliminary report has shown amoxicillin taken once daily to be effective.

Cephalosporins also have been used, but it is questionable whether failure rates are any better than those achieved with penicillin. Cephalosporins resist degradation by beta-lactamases and are very effective against copathogens. First- or second-generation cephalosporins are preferred. Cephalosporins use to treat pediatric pharyngitis include cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefuroxime, cefixime, cefdinir, and cefpodoxime. Macrolide antibiotics may be recommended for penicillin-allergic patients.

As a rule, relapses or failure to improve should be treated with an antibiotic active against beta-lactamase–producing organisms (eg, a macrolide, a cephalosporin, or amoxicillin-clavulanate). The hypothesis is that colonizing pharyngeal bacteria that produce penicillinase have inactivated penicillin, resulting in treatment failure.

Corticosteroids (eg, dexamethasone) have been suggested as adjunctive therapy to decrease pain and shorten symptom duration in adults with pharyngitis. A study in children found that a single dose of oral dexamethasone (0.6 mg/kg, not to exceed 10 mg) did not decrease time to onset of clinically significant pain relief or time to complete pain relief.[11] However, in those children with positive rapid streptococcal test results, there was a statistically significant (but only marginally clinically significant) reduction in time to onset of pain relief.

Therefore, the use of steroids is not routinely recommended but can be considered. This position is also supported by a systematic review of pharyngitis in adult patients, which reported a slight decrease in time to resolution and amount of pain concluded that in view of the heterogeneity of the results, the use of steroids was not routinely recommended but could be offered for consideration on a patient-by-patient basis.[14]

In addition to adequate antibiotic therapy for patients with GABHS, administer antipyretics for pain and fever in all patients, regardless of whether the cause is bacterial or viral. Ibuprofen (10 mg/kg orally every 8 hours) or acetaminophen (15 mg/kg orally every 4-6 hours) is effective. Any such over-the-counter medications should be taken on a limited basis for a limited time (≤ 2-3 days), in accordance with package insert instructions and recommendations for dosing, delivery, and use; any questions or concerns should be referred to the primary care provider.

For patients with herpangina (stomatitis or pharyngitis), alumina-magnesia mixed with diphenhydramine hydrochloride in a 1:1 ratio can be administered orally before meals to decrease associated discomfort and to help maintain good hydration. This medication can be dosed on the basis of the diphenhydramine component (1.25 mg/kg oral swish and swallow every 6 hours as needed).

Previous
Next

Drainage and Tonsillectomy

For patients with a peritonsillar abscess, needle aspiration and drainage is warranted. Retropharyngeal abscesses often require surgical drainage. An experienced pediatrician can often drain a peritonsillar abscess, but if the pediatrician is uncomfortable with the procedure, referral to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist or an ED physician is warranted.

If pharyngitis is recurrent or severe, referral to an ENT specialist for possible tonsillectomy may be considered. Parents often request such referrals if their child has had multiple episodes of pharyngitis. It should be pointed out, however, that tonsillectomy generally offers only temporary relief. Although a 50-80% reduction in GABHS pharyngitis is noted during the first 2 years after the procedure, by the third year after tonsillectomy, no difference is reported in comparison with control groups.

Previous
Next

Long-Term Monitoring

Because more than 90% of children clear GABHS from their pharynx within 24 hours after the initiation of antibiotic therapy, they should remain out of school or daycare for 1 day and until fever free. If symptoms persist for longer than 24-48 hours, patients should be reevaluated for the possibility that other concerns may be present, as well as for possible treatment failures.

A study by Schwartz et al reported that all children treated with amoxicillin for strep throat by 5 PM of day 1 may, if afebrile and improved, attend school on day 2.[15, 16]

Follow-up cultures are not routinely necessary unless concerns arise regarding recurrences or carrier states.

Previous
 
 
Contributor Information and Disclosures
Author

Harold K Simon, MD, MBA Professor of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Vice Chair Department of Pediatrics, Associate Division Director of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Director of Research, Divison of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston

Harold K Simon, MD, MBA is a member of the following medical societies: Academic Pediatric Association, American Pediatric Society, American Academy of Pediatrics, Sigma Xi

Disclosure: Received grant/research funds from Venaxis Pharma for study investigator unrelated to these works; Received consulting fee from Venaxis Pharma for board membership; Received grant/research funds from Baxter Pharma for study investigator unrelated to hesse works.

Chief Editor

Russell W Steele, MD Clinical Professor, Tulane University School of Medicine; Staff Physician, Ochsner Clinic Foundation

Russell W Steele, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Association of Immunologists, American Pediatric Society, American Society for Microbiology, Infectious Diseases Society of America, Louisiana State Medical Society, Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, Society for Pediatric Research, Southern Medical Association

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Acknowledgements

Leslie L Barton, MD Professor Emerita of Pediatrics, University of Arizona College of Medicine

Leslie L Barton, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, Association of Pediatric Program Directors, Infectious Diseases Society of America, and Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Rosemary Johann-Liang, MD Medical Officer, Infectious Diseases and Pediatrics, Division of Special Pathogens and Immunological Drug Products, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration

Rosemary Johann-Liang, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics, American Medical Association, and Infectious Diseases Society of America

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Garry Wilkes, MBBS, FACEM Director of Emergency Medicine, Calvary Hospital, Canberra, ACT; Adjunct Associate Professor, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Mary L Windle, PharmD Adjunct Associate Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug Reference

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

Grace M Young, MD Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland Medical Center

Grace M Young, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of Pediatrics and American College of Emergency Physicians

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

References
  1. [Guideline] Michigan Quality Improvement Consortium. Acute pharyngitis in children. Southfield (MI): Michigan Quality Improvement Consortium; 2009 Jan. [Full Text].

  2. Fretzayas A, Moustaki M, Kitsiou S, Nychtari G, Nicolaidou P. The clinical pattern of group C streptococcal pharyngitis in children. J Infect Chemother. 2009 Aug. 15(4):228-32. [Medline].

  3. Centor RM, Atkinson TP, Ratliff AE, Xiao L, Crabb DM, Estrada CA, et al. The clinical presentation of Fusobacterium-positive and streptococcal-positive pharyngitis in a university health clinic: a cross-sectional study. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Feb 17. 162(4):241-7. [Medline].

  4. Barclay L. Sore Throat in Young Adults May Indicate Serious Illness. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/839928. Accessed: May 26, 2015.

  5. American Academy of Pediatrics. Report of the committee on infectious diseases. Pickering LK, Baker CJ, McMillan J, Long S (Editors). Red Book. . 27th Edition. Elk Grove Village, Il: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2006:430-439.:

  6. [Guideline] Ayanruoh S, Waseem M, Quee F, Humphrey A, Reynolds T. Impact of rapid streptococcal test on antibiotic use in a pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009 Nov. 25(11):748-50. [Medline].

  7. Shulman ST, Bisno AL, Clegg HW, Gerber MA, Kaplan EL, Lee G, et al. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Nov 15. 55 (10):1279-82. [Medline].

  8. Harrist A, Van Houten C, Shulman ST, Van Beneden C, Murphy T. Notes from the Field: Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis Misdiagnoses at a Rural Urgent-Care Clinic--Wyoming, March 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Jan 1. 64 (50-51):1383-5. [Medline].

  9. el-Daher NT, Hijazi SS, Rawashdeh NM, al-Khalil IA, Abu-Ektaish FM, Abdel-Latif DI. Immediate vs. delayed treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis with penicillin V. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1991 Feb. 10(2):126-30. [Medline].

  10. WANNAMAKER LW, RAMMELKAMP CH Jr, DENNY FW, BRINK WR, HOUSER HB, HAHN EO, et al. Prophylaxis of acute rheumatic fever by treatment of the preceding streptococcal infection with various amounts of depot penicillin. Am J Med. 1951 Jun. 10(6):673-95. [Medline].

  11. Bulloch B, Kabani A, Tenenbein M. Oral dexamethasone for the treatment of pain in children with acute pharyngitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 May. 41(5):601-8. [Medline].

  12. Krober MS, Weir MR, Themelis NJ, van Hamont JE. Optimal dosing interval for penicillin treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1990 Nov. 29(11):646-8. [Medline].

  13. Altamimi S, Khalil A, Khalaiwi KA, Milner R, Pusic MV, Al Othman MA. Short versus standard duration antibiotic therapy for acute streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21. CD004872. [Medline].

  14. Wing A, Villa-Roel C, Yeh B, Eskin B, Buckingham J, Rowe BH. Effectiveness of corticosteroid treatment in acute pharyngitis: a systematic review of the literature. Acad Emerg Med. 2010 May. 17(5):476-83. [Medline].

  15. Schwartz RH, Kim D, Martin M, Pichichero ME. A Reappraisal of the Minimum Duration of Antibiotic Treatment Before Approval of Return to School for Children With Streptococcal Pharyngitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Dec. 34 (12):1302-4. [Medline].

  16. Haelle T. Strep Throat: Treated Kids Can Return to School in 12 Hours. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/850338. September 02, 2015; Accessed: April 26, 2016.

 
Previous
Next
 
Posterior pharynx with petechiae and exudates in a 12-year-old girl. Both the rapid antigen detection test and throat culture were positive for group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Streptococcal pharyngitis , Note the redness and edema of the oropharynx, and petechiae, or small red spots, on the soft palate caused by Strep throat. Strep throat is caused by group A streptococcus bacteria. These bacteria are spread through direct contact with mucus from the nose or throat of persons who are infected, or through contact with infected wounds or sores on the skin.
 
 
 
All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2016 by WebMD LLC. This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.